SMAP ready to map!

Artist's rendering of the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite.  Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Artist’s rendering of the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Tomorrow afternoon NASA plan to launch their Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite, generally known by the more pronounceable acronym SMAP, aboard the Delta 2 rocket. It’s due to go into a near polar sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 685km.

The SMAP mission will measure the amount of water in the top five centimetres of soil, and whether the ground is frozen or not. These two measurements will be combined to produce global maps of soil moisture to improve understanding of the water, carbon and energy cycles. This data will support applications ranging from weather forecasting, monitoring droughts, flood prediction and crop productivity, as well as providing valuable information to climate science.

The satellite carries two instruments; a passive L-Band radiometer and an active L-Band synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Once in space the satellite will deploy a spinning 6m gold-coated mesh antenna which will measure the backscatter of radar pulses, and the naturally occurring microwave emissions, from off the Earth’s surface. Rotating 14.6 times every minute, the antenna will provide overlapping loops of 1000km giving a wide measurement swath. This means that whilst the satellite itself only has an eight day repeat cycle, SMAP will take global measurements every two to three days.

Interestingly, although antennas have previously been used in large communication satellites, this will be the first time a deployable antenna, and the first time a spinning application, have been used for scientific measurement.

The radiometer has a high soil moisture measurement accuracy, but has a spatial resolution of only 40km; whereas the SAR instrument has much higher spatial resolution of 10km, but with lower soil moisture measurement sensitivity. Combining the passive and active observations will give measurements of soil moisture at 10km, and freeze/thaw ground state at 3km. Whilst SMAP is focussed on provided on mapping Earth’s non-water surface, it’s also anticipated to provide valuable data on ocean salinity.

SMAP will provide data about soil moisture content across the world, the variability of which is not currently well understood. However, it’s vital to understanding both the water and carbon cycles that impact our weather and climate.

Is space a good investment?

Space is an expensive, and uncertain, environment to work in, and decisions to invest in space technology and missions are frequently questioned in the current global economic climate. Headline figures of tens of millions, or billions, do little to counter the accusations that there are more appropriate things to be investing in. Is the cost of investing in space worthwhile?

Image of East Devon, UK taken by Landsat 8 on 4th November 2013.  The River Exe flows from top to bottom and the River Teign from left to right. Plumes of suspended sediment are clearly visible following periods of heavy rainfall in late October and early November 2013.  Image courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey

Image of East Devon, UK taken by Landsat 8 on 4th November 2013.
The River Exe flows from top to bottom and the River Teign from left to right. Plumes of suspended sediment are clearly visible following periods of heavy rainfall in late October and early November 2013.
Image courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey

Last week the Landsat Advisory Group, a sub-committee of the US Government’s National Geospatial Advisory Committee, issued a report looking at the economic value of Landsat data to America. As Landsat data is freely available, quantifying the value of that data isn’t easy; and the Group approached it by considering the cost of providing alternative solutions for Landsat data.

They considered sixteen applications, linked to US Government departments, which use Landsat data. These ranged from flood mitigation, shoreline mapping and coastal change; through forestry management, waterfowl habitats and vineyard management; to mapping, wildfire assessment and global security support. The report estimated that these sixteen streams alone produced savings of between $350 million and $436 million to the US economy. The report concluded that the economic value of just one year of Landsat data far exceeds the multi-year total cost of building, launching, and managing Landsat satellites and sensors.

This conclusion was interesting given reports in 2014 that Landsat 8 cost around $850m to build and launch, a figure which will increase to almost $1 billion with running costs; and that NASA were estimating that Landsat 9 would cost in excess of the $650m budget they had been given. These figures are significantly in excess of the quantified figures in the Advisory Group report; however work undertaken by US Geological Survey in 2013 identified the economic benefit of Landsat data for the year 2011 is estimated to be $1.70 billion for US users, and $400 million for international users.

The discrepancy between the two figures is because the Advisory Group did not include private sector savings; nor the fact that Landsat data is also collected, and disseminated, by the European Space Agency; nor did it include unquantified societal benefits or contribution to scientific research. For example, it highlighted that humanitarian groups use Landsat imagery to monitor human rights violations at low cost and without risking staff entering dangerous, and often inaccessible, world regions.

Last week also demonstrated the uncertain side of space, with the discovery of the Beagle-2 spacecraft on the surface of Mars. The UK led probe mission was assumed to have crash landed on Christmas Day 2003, however recent images indicate it landed successfully but its solar panels did not unfurl successfully. The Beagle 2 discovery has obvious echoes with the recent shady site of the Philea comet landing, and demonstrates that space exploration is a risky business. Given the Beagle 2 mission cost £50 million and the Philea mission was estimated to cost around region of €1.4 billion, is the cost of investing in space worthwhile?

Consider satellite television, laptops, smoke detectors, tele-medicine, 3D graphics and satellite navigation – all of these developments came through the space industry, and so now think about the jobs and economic activity generated by these sectors. Working in space is expensive and challenging, but it’s precisely because of this that the space industry is innovative and experimental. The space sector works at the technological cutting edge, investment in space missions benefits and enhances our life on earth. So if anyone ever asks whether space is a good investment, tell them about the financial benefits of Landsat, the development of laptops, the number of lives saved by smoke detectors or the humanitarian support provided to Amnesty International.

Why counting animals from spaces isn’t as hard as you think

Great Migration in Maasai Mara National Park, Kenya

Great Migration in Maasai Mara National Park, Kenya; copyright alextara / 123RF Stock Photo

Last week the keepers at London Zoo were busy counting their 17,000 animals, as part of the annual headcount. Knowing numbers is vital within the wild too, but counting animals on the plains of Africa is more challenging. Traditionally wild counts are either ground surveys, which take people and time; or aerial surveys, that can spook the animals. Satellite remote sensing could offer a potential solution, but it’s not straight-forward. Three papers published in 2014 show the possibilities, and challenges, of using satellites to count animals.

The paper Spotting East African Mammals in Open Savannah from Space by Zheng Yang et al (2014) published on the 31st December, describes the use of very high-resolution GeoEye-1 satellite images to detecting large animals in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. GeoEye-1’s 2m multispectral image resolution was not sufficient to detect large animals. However, when combined with the panchromatic image using a pan sharpening technique the resolution improved to 0.5m meaning adult wildebeests and zebras were 3 to 4 pixels long, and 1 to 2 pixels wide. Experienced Kenyan wildlife researchers initially visually reviewed images to develop a classification system, forming the basis of a hybrid image system, using both pixel-based and object-based image assessment approaches to determine which pixels belonged to animals. The results showed an average count error of 8.2% compared to manual counts, with an omission error rate of 6.6%, which demonstrates that satellites have potential for use in counting; it’s cheaper and less intrusive than existing methods.

The second paper was published by Seth Stapleton et al (2014) entitled Assessing Satellite Imagery as a Tool to Track Arctic Wildlife. It used 0.5m resolution imagery of Rowley Island in Foxe Basin, Canada, from Worldview-2 to monitor the island’s polar bear population. The images were corrected for terrain and solar irradiance, and an a histogram stretch to brighten darker, non-ice, areas to assist human analysts identify the bears. Two observers visually identified ‘presumed bears’ both individually and jointly; resulting in the identification of 92 presumed bears. This satellite derived figure was consistent with other models, again offering a potential cheaper and safer way of monitoring polar bears.

Finally, Peter Fretwell et al (2014) published Counting Southern Right Whales by Satellite. Also using WorldView-2, they used a 2m resolution image with eight colour bands and one panchromatic band. The images were analysed using ENVI5 and ArcGIS to identify potential and probable whales, and then visual inspection of these images showed they had identified objects of the right shape and size to be whales; resulting in the identification of 55 probable whales and 23 possible whales. Again, showing satellite images could be useful in calculating whale populations faster and more efficiently.

All three of these papers demonstrate that satellite remote sensing has potential to assist in the monitoring of animal species across the globe. However, there are also significant challenges still to overcome, for example:

  • Resolution: Currently available resolutions may not sufficient to distinguish the level of detail conservationists need, such as species identification in Africa or polar bear cubs in the Canada. However, it may be possible with very high resolution satellites such as the planned WordlView-4 from DigitalGlobe.
  • Cloud cover: The persistent nemesis of optical Earth observation imagery may hamper it’s use in certain areas or seasons.
  • Complicated environments: Further research is needed to ensure animals can be accurately distinguished from their surroundings.

Despite these reservations, the potential to offer regularly, more efficient and safer methods of survey animal populations from space means this will be a rapidly developing area of Earth observation.

The Satellite Earth Observation Industry Began …

The satellite Earth observation (EO) industry, arguably, began 37 years ago yesterday. Now, before everyone starts tweeting and emailing hear me out. Although by this date EO satellites were in orbit, data successfully collected and imagery produced, the concept of a sustainable industry really began on the 6th January 1978 with the deactivation of Landsat-1.

Landsat 1 Image of East Anglia June 1976

Image of East Anglia, UK taken by Landsat 1 in June 1976; data courtesy of the European Space Agency / U.S. Geological Survey.

Landsat-1, also known as ERTS-1 (Earth Resources Technology Satellite), was launched by NASA into a sun-synchronous near polar orbit on the 23rd July 1972. It carried two sensors:

  • Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) which only operated for 14 days and recorded only 1692 images; and
  • Multispectral Scanner operating in four bands with a non-square sampling interval (pixel size) of 57m x 79m, that’s now resampled to 60m resolution imagery.

Landsat-2 was launched on 22nd January 1975 and carried exactly the same sensors as its predecessor; and it is this continuity of data that gave birth to the Earth observation industry. It paved the way for the development of an archive of over forty years worth of additional data provided by Landsat-3, Landsat-4 and Landsat-5; unfortunately, Landsat-6 did not reach its orbit. The archive continues to grow through the currently active Landsat-7 and Landsat-8, but it all began with Landsat-1.

The concept of a global archive gives satellite remote sensing its unique selling point. No other method of measurement or imagery has the ability to provide global coverage, almost real time data, time-series data analysis and the opportunity to go back and retrieve data before you knew you needed it! These elements, together with scientific knowledge and computing power, are the backbone of the products and services that form the modern EO industry.

The second Landsat driver to enhance the EO industry occurred thirty years after the deactivation of Landsat-1, when a data policy change in 2008 meant that all new and archived Landsat data held by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was made freely available, via the internet, to anyone in the world.

In addition, in researching this post I also discovered that Landsat-1 has an island named after it. A Canadian coastal survey was carried out in 1976 using Landsat-1 data, and a number of unchartered features were discovered off the northeast coast of Labrador. Landsat Island is 20km off the coast and has a landmass of only 25m x 45m, with the only known inhabitant a polar bear! The island marks the easternmost point of the Canadian land mass; and its discovery increased Canada’s territorial waters by 68km.

Landsat first day cover

Landsat first day cover

Since the first Landsat was launched, many more EO satellites have gone into orbit; our blog post last year noted 192 EO satellites in orbit at the start of 2014. However, it’s worth remembering that although Landsat was not the first EO satellite, the Landsat missions are the founding fathers of the EO industry through their foresight of data continuity.

Pixalytics 2014 Blog of Blogs

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Have you read our most popular blog of the year? If not, you still have a chance to see How Many Satellites are Orbiting the Earth?

This time last year we decided to issue a blog every Wednesday during 2014, to increase the profile of Pixalytics both online and within the wider Earth observation community. It has been an interesting exercise in discipline; finding interesting topics, writing the words and getting a suitable image. It’s not been easy; there’ve been weeks where we‘ve had no ideas for the blog when we’ve arrived at the office on the Wednesday morning. However, we’ve done it! Every Wednesday lunchtime for the past 52 weeks we’ve released a blog.

It’s been interesting to see which posts have attracted interest, and sometimes which posts have not. Our top post by far was the one at the top of the page, with the other top four being:

The majority of our posts are focussed on Earth observation and space, although we also occasionally cover topics relevant for any small businesses. Interestingly, our sixth most popular blog was Pareto’s Principle and the Micro Business.

These top posts have been determined by the number of views according to Google Analytics, although we know timing and other factors influence these figures. Posts from the start of the year have had more time to generate views, but we’ve also developed our social media presence during the last few months, which has meant some recent posts have done very well in our list. In particular, the following two posts from the last five weeks:

Interestingly, our 2013 post on What is the reason for blooms of phytoplankton? also received a significant number of views.

There are a lot of webpages written about developing blogs that are read. We’ve tried things out, tested the blog guru’s hypothesises and made a few mistakes. However, the things we’ve learnt are:

  • Answering questions people have about space and Earth observation are our most popular posts.
  • Looking at current national or international events using an Earth observation viewpoint are also well received.
  • Blogs about conferences/meetings we’ve attended are very popular during the conference/meeting, but less so after the event.
  • Getting a blog calendar together to plan potential ideas helped a lot.
  • A blog about the Size and Health of the UK Space Industry was the least popular of the year – if you want to boost its self-esteem you can read it here!

So has all the effort been worth it?

In pure numbers, Google Analytics shows our web traffic has increased by 166% compared with 2013, although as we noted earlier this isn’t all down to our blog. We know that people read the blog as they have come up to Sam at meetings and told her; and we’ve had telephone calls and emails after people have read posts. We can’t say that our blog has directly generated business, but we absolutely believe it has raised our profile, and so for us it has been worth it. If you’d like to have a look at the all the blogs we’ve written you can find them all here.

We’ve done 2014, and can exclusively reveal our weekly blog is going to carry on into 2015. Next year we’re going to focus a bit more around specific aspects of Earth observation, with the odd small business topic, conference update and current event sprinkled in.

Thanks for reading during 2014, and we look forward to seeing you in 2015.

Happy New Year!

Merry Christmas!


Night-time image of Plymouth taken by an astronaut aboard the International Space Station, February 2013. Image courtesy of

Pixalytics Ltd would like to wish everyone we worked with during the last year, and all the readers of our blog, a very happy Christmas.

What do colours mean in satellite imagery?

False colour image of phytoplankton blooming off the coast of Patagonia. Acquired 2nd Dec 2014. Image Courtesy of NASA/NASA's Earth Observatory

Phytoplankton blooming off the coast of Patagonia on 2nd Dec 2014.
Image Courtesy of NASA/NASA’s Earth Observatory

Satellite images are a kaleidoscope of colours, all vying for attention. It’s important to be clear what the colours are showing, and more importantly, what they may not be showing, to interpret the image correctly. For example, a patch of white on an image might indicate snow or ice, sunglint off the ocean, fog or it could just mean it was cloudy.

On the earth’s surface different colours represent different land types:

  • Vegetation appears as shades of green from pale for grasslands to dark for forests – although some forests will progress from green to orange to brown in autumn.
  • Ocean colour is significantly influenced by phytoplankton, which can produce a range of blue and green colours. A fantastic example of this can be seen in the image at the top of the blog showing phytoplankton blooming off the cost of Patagonia.
  • Snow and ice can appear white, grey, or slightly blue.

As noted in the opening, colours can also mislead with cloud cover being the natural nemesis of optical remote sensing. However, you also have to be careful with effects such as:

  • Smoke: ranges from brown to grey to black.
  • Haze: a pale grey or a dirty white.
  • Dust: can be brown, like bare ground, but also white, red and black.
  • Shadow: Clouds or mountain shadows can look like dark surface features.

There is a good article here from NASA’s Earth Observatory giving more details on the different colours of surface land types. So far, we’ve focussed on natural colour signatures; but man-made structures also appear on imagery. Generally, urban areas tend to be silver or grey in colour; although larger objects also show up in their own right such as the bright red roof of Ferrari World in the middle of the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix Circuit – as discussed in a previous blog.

Composite Google Earth image of the entrance to the Panama Canal: Data courtesy of DigitalGlobe

Composite Google Earth image of the entrance to the Panama Canal: Data courtesy of DigitalGlobe

We tried to repeat the identification of man-made objects for this blog using the coloured roofs of the Biomuseo building, located on the Amador Causeway – at the entrance to the Panama Canal in the Pacific Ocean. Sadly, Landsat 8 pixels are too coarse; and Google Earth has fallen prey to cloud cover preventing visibility, as shown in the image on the right. What you can see though is the buildings in Panama City and the yachts in the marinas and clustered around the four islands (Naos, Perico, Culebra and Flamenco) at the end of the Amador Causeway.

The final thing to remember when considering colours, is the format of the image itself. Some images use true-colours from the red, green and blue wavelengths, which produce colours as if you were looking at the scene directly, so trees are green, sea is blue, etc. However, other images incorporate infrared light to enhance the detection of features not easily distinguished on a true-colour image; this means colours aren’t what you would expect, for example, the ocean may appear red.

Colour is central to use of satellite imagery, but you need to know the properties of the rainbow you are looking at or you may never find the pot of satellite gold.

The Small and Mighty Proba Missions

This week the European Space Agency announced the latest mission in the Project for OnBoard Automony (PROBA) mini-satellite programme. Proba-3 is planned to launch in four years; and will be a pair of satellites flying in close formation, 150m apart, with the front satellite creating an artificial eclipse of the sun allowing its companion views of the solar corona; normally only visible momentarily during solar eclipses.

Tamar estuary captured in October 2005, data courtesy of ESA.

Tamar estuary captured in October 2005, data courtesy of ESA.

The Proba missions are part of ESA’s In-orbit Technology Demonstration Programme, which focuses on testing, and using, innovative technologies in space. Despite Proba-3’s nomenclature, it will be the fourth mission in the Proba programme. The first, Proba-1, was launched on the 22nd October 2001 on a planned two year Earth observation (EO) mission; however despite the planned lifecycle, thirteen years later it is still flying and sending back EO data. It’s in a sun synchronous orbit with a seven-day repeat cycle and carries eight instruments. The main one is the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS), developed in the UK by the Space Group of Sira Technology Ltd that was later acquired by Surrey Satellite Technology Limited. CHRIS is a hyperspectral sensor that acquires a set of up to five images of a target, with different modes allowing the collection of up to 62 spectral wavebands.

Plymouth, where Pixalytics is based, and our lead consultant, Dr Samantha Lavender, have a long history with Proba-1. Rame Head point, along the coast from Plymouth, is one of the test sites for the CHRIS instrument and she’s been doing research using the data it provides for over a decade. Over Plymouth Mode 2 is used, which focuses on mapping the water at a spatial resolution of 17m; this mode was proposed by Sam back in the early days of CHRIS-Proba. The image at the top of the page, captured in October 2005, shows the Tamar estuary in the UK that separates the counties of Devon and Cornwall; for this image CHRIS was pointed further North due to planned fieldwork activities. At the bottom of the image is the thick line of the Tamar Road Bridge and below it, the thinner Brunel railway bridge. Plymouth is to the right of the bridge, and to the left is the Cornish town of Saltash.

Proba-V image of the Nile Delta in Egypt, courtesy of the Belgian PROBA-V / ESA Earth Watch programmes

Proba-V image of the Nile Delta in Egypt, courtesy of the Belgian PROBA-V / ESA Earth Watch programmes

Proba-2 was launched in 2009, carrying two solar observation experiments, two space weather experiments and seventeen other technology demonstrations. ESA returned to EO for the third mission, Proba-V, launched on the 7 May 2013; the change in nomenclature is because the V stands for vegetation sensor. It is a redesign of the ‘Vegetation’ imaging instrument carried on the French Spot satellites; it has a 350m ground resolution with a 2250km swath, and collects data in the blue, red, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavebands. It provides worldwide coverage every two days, and through its four spectral bands it can distinguish between different types of land cover. The image on the right is from Proba-V, showing the Nile delta on 2nd May 2014.

Despite their small stature all the Proba satellites are showing their resilience by remaining operational, and they’re playing a vital role in allowing innovative new technologies to be tested in space.

Science won’t be rushed!

Ocean currents derived from GOCE data. Image courtsey of ESA/CNES/CLS

Ocean currents derived from GOCE data
Image courtsey of ESA/CNES/CLS

Last week scientists presented the most accurate model of ocean currents created to date using data from the GOCE satellite; twelve months after the satellite burnt up on re-entry to the Earth’s atmosphere.

Immediacy is the standard bearer for the twenty-first century; social media allows everyone to tell the world the instant they’ve done anything, emails must be read as soon as they come in and there’s the frustration you feel when a web page takes a few seconds to load. Science doesn’t easily fit this world. The scientific method takes time; it’s about developing a hypothesis, experimenting to test that hypothesis, analysing the data and comparing it the original idea, and then often tweaking the hypothesis and repeating the cycle. Instant gratification is rarely found in this methodology, as shown by the GOCE work.

GOCE, the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Explorer, was launched in 2009. It was five metre long and was known as the ‘Ferrari of space’ due to its sleek design and the fact it was assembled in Italy; and was the lowest flying scientific satellite. Its main instrument was an Electrostatic Gravity Gradiometer which measured gravity gradients in all directions. It flew for four years running out of fuel in October 2013, and returned to earth a few weeks later.

GOCE’s instrumentation mapped minute changes in Earth’s gravity which were used to construct a ‘geoid’ – a hypothetical global ocean at rest – with an accuracy of 1-2cm at a 100km resolution. This geoid model was subtracted from the mean sea-surface height measured over a 20-year period by other satellites, including Envisat, to create a map of the ocean surface showing areas of water higher, and lower, than average. The map was then used to calculate ocean currents and speeds, and was validated through in situ measurements. The resulting model of ocean currents was presented at the 5th International GOCE User Workshop last week.

GOCE, like all satellites, collected a huge amount of data, which takes time to analyse. A similar example is likely to be the Philae probe which landed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko last month. During the sixty hours it was operational after landing; it sent streams of measurements back to Earth. Even without future communication with the probe, this data will take years to fully analyse, study and interpret. Who knows what scientific discoveries may be made from this?

You can’t rush science. It takes time, and effort, to get accurate and reliable scientific results. But those results have the potential to change our understanding of the world and help create innovations to improve the future of our planet and our lives. Now that’s worth waiting for isn’t it?

Small businesses: Think big on marketing

Courtesy of Caterham F1

Courtesy of Caterham F1

We sponsored two Caterham Formula One cars in last weekend’s Abu Dhabi Grand Prix, which meant the Pixalytics name was circulating around the Las Marina track on Friday, Saturday and Sunday. Sponsoring an F1 car isn’t something a micro-businesses, like us, normally does; but as we described in last week’s blog this came through a crowdfunding opportunity.

We spent the weekend watching the television coverage to see if we could spot our name on the car; but the speed made it almost impossible. We knew where our name was, as you can see in the pictures, and a number of times we saw the white line of the text, but couldn’t make out individual the letters. We almost saw it in pit lane interviews, but the presenter’s leg was in the way! Whilst in the race the closest we came was a shot from Fernando Alonso’s car as he and Will Stevens, in the Caterham, raced down the straight; but everything was still a blur. So despite all this, was the sponsorship worth it? Absolutely!

Courtesy of Caterham F1

Courtesy of Caterham F1

Using social media before, during and after the race we were able to get the message out about our sponsorship, this meant:

  • Much higher high profile on Twitter and LinkedIn, with a more impressions, views, retweets, favourites and clicks.
  • Increase web traffic for the days leading up to the race.
  • Comments and direct responses to last week’s blog were higher than normal.
  • Connections with new people and companies through the Caterham crowdfunding community.

This piece of promotion made a hugely positive impact on our profile, plus it was great fun too!

For a micro-business marketing can be a dreaded word. It’s the one thing that everyone knows they should do, but it’s often the thing that gets put off until tomorrow; contracts need to be delivered, invoices payments have to be chased and HMRC has to be paid. These are all far more pressing than marketing, right?

Wrong. Marketing is vital to developing a sustainable business. You need to make sure people know about your company, its products and services. Too often micro-businesses stick with the tried and tested; adverts, flyers, exhibiting and websites. All of these are important, but don’t forget to think big too!

Courtesy of Caterham F1

Courtesy of Caterham F1

Sure the large firms have more money, more time and more people, so you can be creative. Look for the unusual and the expected, and when you see an opportunity seize it. We found out about Caterham watching the television at home, and within an hour had taken the chance. Consider this quote from Richard Branson, a master of self-promotion.

“Don’t think what’s the cheapest way to do it or the fastest way to do it. Think what’s the most amazing way to do it!”

The next time you think about your marketing, don’t just do what you’ve always done. Think unusual, think unexpected, think different, think amazing, think big! You never know what opportunities you could seize!