Remote Sensing and Agriculture in Italy

Poster from the Game Changing Technologies in Agriculture Event in Milan on 1st October 2015

Poster from the Game Changing Technologies in Agriculture Event in Milan on 1st October 2015

Last week I was in Italy talking all things remote sensing and agriculture. At the start of the week I was in Rome with the European Space Agency (ESA) discussing the Sentinel-2 performance, before catching the train north to Milan on the Wednesday evening for a series of UK Trade and Industry events focused on technology in the agricultural industry (AgriTech).

Thursday’s event was titled ‘Game Changing Technologies in Agriculture’, and was held in what looked like a large greenhouse in the grounds of Villa Necchi. We began the day with a welcome from the UK’s Ambassador to Italy, which was followed by talks from those working most directly in the agriculture industry. It was fascinating to hear some of the facts and see how much of a technological revolution has been occurring within this field. This is being driven by both the world population’s increased need for food – a 60% increase in demand by 2020 – and the corresponding need for businesses to increase their productivity. An overriding theme was the need to be more robust to, or better understand, the environment, including protection food production from both the weather and pests to reduce wastage.

After coffee we moved onto the provision of technological solutions, and there were a couple talks about how both drone and satellite remote sensing could benefit agriculture. My favourite other talks included the fitting of accelerometer collars on cows to collect data about their move movements more effectively, and the use of robot mechanical hands to perform repetitive tasks.

The afternoon expanded into synthetic biology, nanotechnology and technologies to reduce energy requirements or produce it more sustainably. Refrigeration is an important technology for the developing world, allowing a reduction in the current 40% post-harvest food wastage, but needs to be undertaken efficiently; the engines powering the refrigeration units on lorries produce much more pollution than the lorry engines themselves. This was followed by an interactive session where UK innovation centres had ‘stands’ that were used as discussions points on issues such as crops, horticulture, livestock, aquaculture, satellite technologies and big data. The day concluded with talks by Williams Advanced Engineering (associated with the Williams Formula One team) and IBM on how technologies are crossing from one sector to another.

On Friday, whilst it rained heavily in Milan, I spent the morning at the first Sainsbury’s Italian supplier conference. It was interesting to see how a large company is defining, and following, its strategies that include a focus on simplification; both for the supply chain and what the customer experiences. In the afternoon we had an escorted visit around the Milan Expo 2015. This is a six month exhibition which began in May and runs to the end of October and has the theme of Feeding the planet, energy for life’; it has exhibititors from over 140 countries and an exhibition area of 1.1 million square metres; although I didn’t explore all it! The UK exhibit was a beehive structure and wildflower meadow that was connected back to a real beehive in UK.

It was an interesting week and gave me lots of food for thought on how we can further develop the AgriTech services Pixalytics offers.

How Many Earth Observation Satellites in Orbit in 2015?

Artist's rendition of a satellite - mechanik/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – mechanik/123RF Stock Photo

Following last week’s blog on the number of satellites orbiting the Earth, this week we’re focussing on Earth observation (EO) satellites. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists database, there were 333 active EO satellites on the 31st August 2015.

Examining these numbers further, reveals almost half have a purpose defined as providing optical imaging, with meteorological satellites account for another 13% and 10% providing radar imaging. There is also a small group with the generic purpose of Earth Science; however, more interestingly is the category of Electric Intelligence. Over 20% of EO satellites have this category, and these satellites have exclusively Military users; there are four countries with these satellites, the USA has the most followed by China, then Russia and France. Who knows what exactly they do?

Of the 333 active EO satellites, 290 are in low earth orbits, 34 in geostationary orbits and 9 are in an elliptical orbit. The oldest EO satellite still operational is the Satélite de Coleta de Dados (SCD) 1 which was launched in 1993; it’s a Brazilian satellite providing environmental data. Unsurprisingly, over half the active EO satellites were launched in the last five years, although this does include Planet Lab’s twenty-eight strong Flock-1 constellation launched in 2014 and 2015, they provide imagery with a spatial resolution between 3 and 5 m.

Picking up on the launch sites we looked at last week. The most popular launch site for EO satellites is the Vandenberg Air Force Base in Lompoc, California, followed by the two Chinese sites of Taiyuan Launch Centre and Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre. The top five is completed with the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, and Cape Canaveral in Florida; although it is worth noting that 22 of Flock-1 constellation were launched from the International Space Station.

In terms of numerical supremacy, the USA controls 34% of all EO satellites, China is next with 21% and then Japan with 6.3%. The UK is listed as controlling only 1 satellite, DMCii’s wide imaging DMC-2 satellite; although, we’ve also participated in 8 of the listed European Space Agency (ESA) EO satellites.

In terms of the future, we’re expecting both Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A to be launched later this year. 2016 could see a variety of launches including ESA’s Sentinel-1B and 2B, cloud, aerosol and radiation mission Earthcare and the ADM-Aeolus Wind satellite; DigitalGlobe’s commercial Worldview 4 satellite that will have a panchromatic resolution of 30 cm and multispectral resolution of 1.20 m; and Japan’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite, ALOS-3.

As we often say, it’s an exciting time to be part of Earth observation! Why not get involved?

How many satellites are orbiting the Earth in 2015?

Image courtesy of ESA Note: The debris field shown in the image is an artist's impression based on actual data. However, the debris objects are shown at an exaggerated size to make them visible at the scale shown

Image courtesy of ESA
Note: The debris field shown in the image is an artist’s impression based on actual data. However, the debris objects are shown at an exaggerated size to make them visible at the scale shown

A satellite can be defined as an artificial body placed in orbit around a planet in order to collect information, or for communication. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) monitors, and maintains a searchable database of, objects launched into space. According to UNOOSA, at the end of August 2015, there were 4 077 satellites orbiting the Earth, which equates to 56.63% of all satellites ever launched.

Of the satellites no longer in orbit, 1 329 have been recovered, 1 539 decayed and 175 deorbited; and interestingly given the definition above, 47 are on the Moon, 15 on Venus, 13 on Mars and 1 on the asteroid EROS. Last year also saw more launches than any other year in history with 239, by the end of August this year we’d only had 106 launches.

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) details the currently active satellites through their database, and they note that at the end of August 2015, of the 4,077 satellites in orbit only 1,305 are active. This means there is currently 2 772 pieces of junk metal circling above your head!

So what are the thirteen hundred active satellites actually doing? According to the UCS over 50% of these satellites have a purpose described as communications. The secondary biggest purpose is Earth observation with 26% of active satellites, 333 in total, and we’ll look at these in more detail next week. The next largest category is technology demonstration with 141 satellites, followed by navigation with 91 satellites and finally the remaining 5% of satellites have a purpose described as space science.

Commercial users account for 52% of the satellites, followed by Governments with 30%, 27% have military users and 8% are civilian users. The percentages total more than one hundred percent as some satellites have for multiple purposes. The civil users are mostly Universities or other academic institutes that have launched their own satellites.

The USA is biggest operator of active satellites with over 500, followed by China and then Russia. The UK is listed as the operator on only 40 satellites, although we also have a share in the 26 European Space Agency (ESA) ones.

An interesting point is the most popular launch sites for satellites. The Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia has launched the most satellites in history, over 2,000. This is followed by Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan with 1,500, with this site being famous for launching both Sputnik 1 and Yuri Gagarin’s first manned space flight in Vostock 1. After this are the American sites of Cape Canaveral, Florida and the Vandenberg Air Force Base in Lompoc, California, followed by the ESA launch site of French Guiana.

The UK currently doesn’t feature anywhere on the list, but the first steps to changing this are underway. The UK Government is planning to have a spaceport established in this country by 2018; with three sites in Scotland short-listed together with Newquay in Cornwall, which is an exciting prospect for Pixalytics as we are both based in south-west. The initial focus is likely to be sub-orbital flights, but who knows what could be launched in time.

When you next look up into the sky, remember that there are over four thousand hunks of metal shooting around the Earth at speeds of many thousands of the kilometres an hour high above the clouds!

Footprints in Remote Sensing

Plymouth Sound on 25th July 2014 from Landsat 8: Image courtesy of USGS/NASA Landsat

Plymouth Sound on 25th July 2014 from Landsat 8: Image courtesy of USGS/NASA Landsat

I’ve just finished my summer with Pixalytics! As I wrote a blog when I first arrived, I thought it would be nice symmetry to finish my ERASMUS+ placement with a second one.

When I started my internship, I had very little real-world experience. I was really excited and really nervous, but this internship has been a huge eye opener for me. I spent the first week understanding and reviewing the practicals within Pixalytics’ forthcoming book ‘The Practical Handbook of Remote Sensing’ to check for any errors prior to publication, which gave me a good understanding of the basics of remote sensing.

Over the next few weeks I applied my new knowledge to finding and downloading Landsat data for a commercial client. I then downloaded additional Landsat datasats and compared them to altimetry datasets to look for patterns between the two sources for the NovaSAR project. My other main job was processing Landsat 8 data to create a UK-wide vegetation mosaic. This needed cloud free images which is really difficult because the weather in UK is always cloudy, even in summer!

Plymouth is a deeply captivating city with astonishingly magnificent views and landscapes. You get the urban city, fantastic scenery and all around Plymouth are nice beaches, cities and the Dartmoor National Park which is always worth a visit. It’s a safe quiet place where everything is so close together that you can walk everywhere. The people are generally friendly and warm-hearted, and the experience of living in the Plymouth for two months has helped me to gain a more fluent level of English and a better understanding of the British culture – I now know why they constantly talk about the weather!

Overall, I’ve learnt a lot from the internship including practical skills that I will be able to carry with me to my next position. Needless to say, I will miss Pixalytics and Plymouth very dearly, and I’m thankful for the chance to work and live there. ERASMUS+ is an great opportunity that everyone should try to be part of, and I totally recommend going abroad because is an experience that stays with you to rest of your life.

Bye Plymouth, Bye Pixalytics!


Blog by Selin Cakaloglu, Erasmus+ Intern at Pixalytics

Sentinel-2A dips its toe into the water

Detailed image of algal bloom in the Baltic Sea acquired by Sentinel-2A on 7 August 2015. Data courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel data (2015)/ESA.

Detailed image of algal bloom in the Baltic Sea acquired by Sentinel-2A on 7 August 2015. Data courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel data (2015)/ESA.

With spectacular images of an algal bloom in the Baltic Sea, ESA’s Sentinel-2A has announced its arrival to the ocean colour community. As we highlighted an earlier blog, Sentinel-2A was launched in June predominately as a land monitoring mission. However, given it offers higher resolution data than other current marine focussed missions; it was always expected to dip it’s toe into ocean colour. And what a toe it has dipped!

The images show a huge bloom of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea, with the blue-green swirls of eddies and currents. The image at the top of the blog shows the detail of the surface floating bloom caught in the currents, and there is a ship making its way through the bloom with its wake producing a straight black line as deeper waters are brought to the surface.

Algal bloom in the Baltic Sea acquired by Sentinel-2A on 7 August 2015. Data courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel data (2015)/ESA.

Algal bloom in the Baltic Sea acquired by Sentinel-2A on 7 August 2015. Data courtesy of Copernicus Sentinel data (2015)/ESA.

To the right is a wider view of the bloom within the Baltic Sea. The images were acquired on the 7th August using the Multispectral Imager, which has 13 spectral bands and the visible, which were used here, have a spatial resolution of 10 m.

The Baltic Sea has long suffered from poor water quality and in 1974 it became the first entire sea to be subject to measures to prevent pollution, with the signing of the Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area. Originally signed by the Baltic coastal countries, a revised version was signed by the majority of European countries in 1992. This convention came into force into force on the 17th January 2000 and is overseen by the Helsinki Commission – Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission – also known as HELCOM. The convention aims to protect the Baltic Sea area from harmful substances from land based sources, ships, incineration, dumping and from the exploitation of the seabed.

Despite the international agreements, the ecosystems of the Baltic Sea are still threatened by overfishing, marine and chemical pollution. However, the twin threats that cause the area to suffer from algal blooms are warm temperatures and excessive levels of nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen. This not only contributes towards the algal blooms, but the Baltic Sea is also home to seven of the world’s ten largest marine dead zones due to the low levels of oxygen in the water, which prevent marine life from thriving.

These images certainly whet the appetite of marine remote sensors, who also have Sentinel-3 to look forward to later this year. That mission will focus on sea-surface topography, sea surface temperature and ocean colour, and is due to the launched in the last few months of 2015. It’s an exciting time to be monitoring and researching the world’s oceans!

Evolution of Coastal Zones

Lost Lake Area of Louisiana, USA. Landsat 5 image from 1985 on left, Landsat 8 from 2015 on right. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

Lost Lake Area of Louisiana, USA. Landsat 5 image from 1985 on left, Landsat 8 from 2015 on right. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

Coastal zones are the place where the sea and the land meet, and they’ve played a massive role in the life of Pixalytics. From a personal standpoint we’re based, and live, in Plymouth on the south-west coast and anyone who saw the Dawlish railway tracks swinging in midair eighteen months ago will know how these areas can affect our transport links. In addition, Sam’s PhD was focussed on the ‘Remote Sensing of Suspend Sediment in the Humber Estuary’, and so Pixalytics has effectively been grown from a coastal zone!

Last week the BBC carried a report highlighting the erosion of the Louisiana coastal wetlands; in particular, it noted that more than an area the size of a football pitch was disappearing every hour. This statistic caught our attention, and our next steps were obvious! We downloaded two images of the Lafourche Bayou in Louisiana; the first was a Landsat 5 image acquired on the 31st August 1985, and the second was a Landsat 8 image acquired twenty years later on the 02nd August 2015.

Mouth of Atchafalya River, Louisiana, USA. Landsat 5 image on left from 1985, Landsat 8 image from 2015 on right. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

Mouth of Atchafalya River, Louisiana, USA. Landsat 5 image on left from 1985, Landsat 8 image from 2015 on right. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

The image at the top of the blog shows the area around the Lost Lake, in the bottom left hand corner, just off the coast of Louisiana; with the 1985 image on the left, and the 2015 image on the right. The loss of land, described in the BBC report, can be seen in the northern portion of the image with a lot more water visible. However, the image on the right shows the mouth of the Atchafalya River in Louisiana; again, the 1985 image is on the left. Coastal evolution is again clearly visible, but this time there are islands that have risen from the water.

Swamplands, like in Louisiana, aren’t the only coastal zones changing. In 2011, the United Nations Environmental Programme estimated that over the last 40 years Jamaica’s Negril beaches have experienced average beach erosion of between 0.5 m and 1 m per year. Another coastal zone in decline are mangroves and wetland forests; a 2007 report noted that the areal extent of mangrove forests had declined by between 35 % and 86 % over the last quarter half century (Duke et al. 2007).

Coastal zones have social, economic and environmental importance as they attract both human settlements and economic activity; however, they are also particularly susceptible to the impacts of climate change and their evolution will have impacts on the human, flora and fauna populations of those areas. So when you’re next at the coast have a good look around; the view in front of you may never be seen again!

Interpretation is the Key to Remote Sensing

Landsat 8 Image, acquired on 19 May 2014. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

Landsat 8 Image, acquired on 19 May 2014. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

Landsat 8 Image, acquired on 20th May 2015. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

Landsat 8 Image, acquired on 20th May 2015. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

Remote sensing just produces pretty satellite images doesn’t it? Whilst remote sensing can produce fantastic looking images, the interpretation of the imagery is important. Take the two images at the top of the blog, both are from South America and were acquired by Landsat 8; although they were taken on different days.

In the centre of each image is a white landscape feature; the question is, what are the features and are they the same thing? White colour patches on satellite images can represent a number of things. It could indicate a snow or ice feature like a glacier, or sunglint off the ocean or other body of water, it could be fog or simply be showing that there were clouds on the day that the image was acquired.

The top image with the white feature along its length is the Perito Moreno Glacier, located in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina. It is a 250 square kilometre glacial formation that’s 30 km in length, and interestingly it is one of three Patagonian glaciers that is currently growing.

The second image is a completely different type of landscape feature, although it might be familiar to remote sensing experts! It shows the world’s largest salt flat known as Salar de Uyuni, which is located in the Daniel Campos Province in southwest Bolivia. It has a salt crust a few metres thick over a pool of brine. It’s an extremely flat area, with the altitude varying less than one meter over its 10,582 square kilometres; the flatness of the surface is used to calibrate altimeters on Earth observation satellites.

Remote sensing produces images, and these can be freely sourced from places such as NASA’s Landsat archive or the EU’s Copernicus programme; or images can be purchased from a variety of commercial providers. However getting an image is only the starting point, you need to ensure that you know what you are looking at. This is where the skill in remote sensing, whether it is in the interpretation of the actual image or in the application of scientific theory to create new data derived from the image data.

Remote sensing experts often prefer to work with the data underlying images rather than the images themselves; whereas, novices often work with the images. It’s important to realise that imagery can require interpretation and to not simply accept the face value of what is on the image.

Landscape Features Visible From Space

Eye of the Sahara from Landsat 8 on 7th July 2015. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

Eye of the Sahara from Landsat 8 on 7th July 2015.
Data courtesy of NASA/USGS.

One of my favourite facts growing up was that the Great Wall of China was the only manmade feature visible from space. Of course, I now know that everything about that statement was wrong, and it is not a fact at all!

Firstly, it is actually very difficult to see the Great Wall of China from space due to the narrowness of the wall and the pixel size of satellites. For example, Landsat has a pixel size of 30 m meaning that it is impossible to distinguish anything smaller than 30 m and features need to be significantly larger to be visible. The astronauts astronauts Chris Hadfield from Canada and China’s Yang Liwei, both said they could not see the Great Wall with the naked eye when orbiting the Earth. US astronaut Leroy Chiao took a picture of the Great Wall from the window of the International Space Station in 2004; however, even this needed to be magnified to be able to see the Great Wall. Sadly, the other side of my childhood fact is also untrue; there are a number of manmade features that can be seen from space, including the Great Pyramids at Giza, the greenhouses of Almeria in Spain and Palm Tree Island in Dubai.

There are, of course, also many natural features visible from space. From the obvious Great Barrier Reef, Uluru (also known as Ayres Rock) and the Grand Canyon; to the more unusual and less well known features such as the Eye of the Sahara, which is the image at the top of the blog. I become aware of the Eye of Sahara, also known as the Richat, through a recent New Scientist article. It’s a 40 kilometre wide series of concentric rings of rocks of different ages, located in the Sahara Desert near Ouadene in Mauritania.

It’s not known precisely how this feature was created, nor why it is so circular; however, it is an interesting anomaly visible from space. The concept of exploring unusual Earth features seen from space is the basis of a new television series due to begin on Discovery UK at the end of this month. The series, Into The Unknown, will see presenter Ed Stafford travel to unusual and unexplained landscape features that have been spotted from satellites.

Who says there is nothing left to discover on Earth? Start scouring your satellite pictures; you never know what you might discover!

Four Ways Flexibility Can Be Your Company’s Core Competence

Business flexibility, Copyright: bloomua / 123RF Stock Photo

Copyright: bloomua / 123RF Stock Photo

Flexibility can be a core competence for small businesses, if they can effectively exploit it. This involves being flexible in all areas, within the principles, values and aims of your business. Zig Ziglar, an author and motivational speaker, summed this up with his quote ‘Be firm on principle, but flexible on method’. Four great ways you can exploit this core competence are:

Product/Service Flexibility
Larger businesses often create and sell a specific set of standard products to their customers. As a small business, you can adapt, modify and tailor your products and services specifically to the individual customers needs. This bespoke approach may take a little more resources, but showing this attention to detail is repaid through happy customers and further work. We believe in providing bespoke solutions to our customers, and find the process of trying to ensure that they get the remote sensing product/service that best suits their needs an exciting and rewarding challenge.

Supplier Flexibility
Don’t assume you have to do everything in the business, outsource wherever possible. This allows you to focus on the things that only you can do to grow the business; i.e., you don’t need to be your company’s accountant, web designer, marketing expert, etc. Richard Branson said ‘Everything in your business can be outsourced … if you’re not emotionally attached to doing it’, and the final part of that quote is critical. Outsource the work, not the control; it’s your business and you need to ensure your outsourcing delivers what you want. This can be difficult where you have clear opinions of what you want to achieve; and you need to work with organisations who share your ethos and vision.

Similarly, don’t tie yourself into long term contracts; unless you’re sure it is right for your business. Being based on the Plymouth Science Park, one of things we like is that moving offices is relatively easy. We moved last week from the second floor to a larger ground floor office. We’re looking to recruit a web developer internship, and so we need more space. We’ve not needed so much space for the last eighteen months, so why pay for it?

Employee Flexibility
Traditional employment methods are recruitment through adverts and everyone working together in one office; technology has changed what’s possible for companies, but the traditional approach is also still hugely prevalent. Sam’s worldwide reputation in remote sensing means we’re often contacted by people who want to work with us, and so our recruitment often occurs via people approaching us. This results in placements and internships that are as valuable as conventional employees.

Equally, we don’t necessarily require everyone to be sat in an office all week. We’re happy for people to work from home, or other locations, if that is more suitable to what they’re doing. In our experience, wherever possible, it’s best for us all to be in the office at least once a week to ensure we’re thinking on the same wavelength. Otherwise, we tend to communicate by email and Skype.

Flexibility of Approach
Whilst being trusted Earth observation experts is Pixalytics overarching company objective, we’re also committed to promoting education and training. As part of this we’ve written a book, The Practical Handbook of Remote Sensing, which is due to be published towards the end of this year. This has taken a significant amount of effort, although getting a first draft out in 9 months is also quick for this genre. Will it bring us any work? We’ve got no idea. However, we do know it will promote, educate and inform people about remote sensing that will in turn support the overall values and aims of our company.

These are four ways we use flexibility to develop our core competence. How are you exploiting flexibility in your business?

First Small Steps in Remote Sensing

The International Space Station is seen in silhouette as it transits the moon at roughly five miles per second, Sunday, Aug. 2, 2015, Woodford, VA.  Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

The International Space Station is seen in silhouette as it transits the moon at roughly five miles per second, Sunday, Aug. 2, 2015, Woodford, VA. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

It’s not often you get given the opportunity to travel, live in an exciting new city and get an incredible internship all in one. So when I heard about the Erasmus+ Programme I applied right away! I wanted to gain more experience in remote sensing.

When I was little I had a very big poster of the moon surface hung on my wall, it had so much detail and I would stare at it every night before I went to bed. After my parents bought my first computer, I started to search for more images of the moon and other planets and I was impressed by the complexity of what I found. This was the beginning of my fascination with remote sensing. When it came to choosing my career path, it was not hard. I knew what I wanted to become and now it sounds, and feels, right to call myself a Geomatics Engineer.

I’m currently studying two undergraduate degrees in Surveying, and Civil Engineering; but it was still hard to find an Erasmus work placement for remote sensing. I managed to find the Pixalytics Ltd with my teacher’s help, as he had previously met Dr Samantha Lavender.

After finding a place to do your internship the rest is should be easy, but not for United Kingdom. Getting my work permit from British Council was a really challenging process, and took me exactly three months. Despite doing everything right, getting responses to my emails for sponsorship was hard. It was the most awful part of the process for me, because there was nothing I could do except wait. Finally, after a lot of patience my visa arrived and I was on my way to Plymouth!

The last issue, and some people’s main concern, is getting accommodation. I did not find it hard to find a place to stay because most of the students were out of town. With a basic search on the internet I found a flat in four days, it is based a few hundred metres from the centre of Plymouth and close to the bus route to Pixalytics.

I thought I had read and traveled enough to be prepared when I stepped off the plane in London, but it was still a shock standing alone with my suitcase and hearing all the British accents around me. At first, it was difficult to adapt to the language as the accents are sometimes hard to understand. But once I’d grasped the pronunciation, I believe I’m improving every week.

Working at Pixalytics will be my first internship experience, and I am so grateful to Samantha Lavender for giving me this opportunity. Working abroad will be a memory and lesson in itself but I hope to also I hope to enhance my discipline and knowledge as well as applying my existing engineering and personal skills.

Getting my internship was a long, difficult and exhausting process, but I realized that it’s totally worth it as soon as I got to Plymouth, If anyone is thinking of applying to the Erasmus+ programme, I would totally recommend it!

Blog by Selin Cakaloglu, Erasmus+ Intern at Pixalytics