AgriTech Seeds Start to Grow in Cornwall

On Monday I attended the Jump Start AgriTech event hosted by the South West Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications at the Tremough Innovation Centre on the University of Exeter’s Penryn campus near Falmouth in Cornwall. As the name suggests the one day event covered innovations in AgriTech with a particular focus on what is, or could be, happening in the South West.

The day began with a series of short presentations and Paul Harris, Rothamsted Research, was up first on their Open Access Farm Platform. North Wyke Farm in Devon has been equipped with a variety of sensors and instruments to understand the effects of different farming practices. Of particular interest to me was their analysis of run-off, weather monitoring and soil moisture every 15 minutes; this is a great resource for satellite product validation.

I was up next talking about Earth Observation (EO) Satellite Data for AgriTech. Having seen people overpromise and oversell EO data too many times, I began with getting people to think about what they were trying to achieve, before looking at the technology. The circle of starting questions, on the right, is how I begin with potential clients. If satellite EO is the right technology from these answers, then you can start considering the combinations of both optical/microwave data and free-to-access and commercial data. I went on to show the different types of satellite imagery and what the difference in spatial resolution looks like within an agriculture setting.

I was followed by Vladimir Stolikovic, Satellite Applications Catapult, who focused on the Internet of Things and how it’s important to have sensor network data collected and communicated, with satellite broadband being used in conjunction with mobile phones and WiFi coverage.

Our last talk was by Dr Karen Anderson, University of Exeter, who looked at how drones can capture more than imagery. I was particularly intrigued by the ‘structure from motion photogrammetry’ technique which allows heights to be determined from multiple images; such that for a much lower cost, you can create something similar to what is acquired from a Lidar or laser scanning instrument. Also, by focusing on extracting height, data can be collected in conditions where there’s variable amounts of light, such as under clouds, and it doesn’t requirement high accuracy radiometric calibration.

After coffee, case studies were presented on farming applications:

  • VirtualVet – Collecting data on animal health and drug use digitally, via mobile apps, so paper records don’t become out of data and data can be collated to gain greater insights.
  • Steve Chapman, SC Nutrition Ltd, talked about improving milk production by making sure dried food is optimally prepared – large pieces of dried sweetcorn are digested less well, and a lower nutritional value is extracted from them.
  • The delightfully named, Farm Crap App from FoAM Kernow, aims to encourage farmers to spread manure rather than use artificial fertilizer. Farmers tended to go for the latter as it is easier to calculate the effects, and so having advice, regulations and the important calculations in a phone app, rather than in paper tables, should help them use manure.
  • Caterina Santachiara, ABACO, describing their siti4FARMER solution which is a cloud-computing based platform that includes data which scales from the field to farm and large land areas, with individual customisation so that users can easily see what they need to know.
  • Finally, Glyn Jones from AVANTI, talked about how farmers can stay connected to the internet, and tech support, while out in their fields. This sounds straightforward, but none of the current technologies work well enough – mainly due to the fact that fields aren’t flat! So a new technological area of investigation is ‘white space’ – these are frequencies allocated to broadcasting services, but left unused in particular geographical locations as buffers. The availability varies from location to location, but it is available to lower-powered devices.

After lunch, there were some presentations on Agritech funding opportunities from Innovate UK, AgriTech Cornwall and the South West Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications. The day concluded with a facilitated session where small groups explored a variety of different ideas in more detail.

It was a really good day, and shows that there is real potential for AgriTech to grow in the South West.

Queen’s Speech Targets Space

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Last week was the State Opening of Parliament in the UK following the General Election, this included the Queen’s Speech which set out the legislation the Government intends introduce in the coming Parliament. As expected, Brexit dominated the headlines and so you may have missed the announcement of the Space Industry Bill.

The space sector has been a growth target for the Government since 2010, when it set an ambitious target of delivering 10% of the global space economy. The last UK Space Agency report covered 2014/15 and indicated the industry was worth £13.7bn – equivalent to 6.5% of the global space economy.

Our space industry is inextricably linked to Europe through the European Space Agency (ESA). Whilst, as we have described before, Brexit won’t affect our role in ESA, other projects such as Copernicus and Galileo are EU led projects and the UK’s future involvement isn’t clear. This Bill is part of the Government’s response, and its aim is to make the UK the most attractive place in Europe for commercial space activities.

We’ve previously written about the current UK licencing and regulatory arrangements for anyone who wants to launch an object into space, as detailed in the Outer Space Act 1986. This Bill will change that framework and has the following key elements:

  • New powers to license a wide range of spaceflight activities, including vertically-launched rockets, spaceplanes, satellite operations, spaceports and other technologies.
  • Comprehensive and proportionate regulatory framework to manage risk.
  • Measures to regulate unauthorised access and interference with spacecraft, spaceports and associated infrastructure.
  • Measures to promote public safety by providing a regulatory framework to cover operational insurance, indemnity and liability.

The Bill itself is based on the draft Spaceflight Bill published in February, together with the Government responses to the twelve recommendations of the Science and Technology Committee Report on the Draft Spaceflight Bill which was issued on the 22nd June.

There are still a number of questions to be answered over the coming months.

  • Limited Liability: Currently, the standard requirement is to have insurance of at least €60 million. However, the draft Bill suggests that insurance requirements will be determined as part of the license application process. Clearly, the different types of spaceflight will have different risks and so having flexibility makes sense; however, until the industry understands this aspects it will be a concerning area of uncertainty.
  • Spaceports: Previously, the Government intended to select a location for a spaceport, but last year this changed to offering licences for spaceports. This means there could be multiple spaceports in the country, but it is questionable whether there is sufficient business to support multiple sites. Given the specialist knowledge and skills needed to launch spacecraft, it is likely that a preferred site will eventually emerge, with or without Government involvement.
  • Speed of Change: Back in 2012 the Government acknowledged that regulations for launching objects into space needed to be revised as they didn’t suit smaller satellites. Since that time satellites have got even smaller, constellation launches are increasing rapidly and costs are decreasing. The legislation and regulations will need to evolve as quickly as the technology, if the UK is to be the most attractive place to do business. Can we do this?

The UK Space Industry is in for a roller coaster over the coming years. Brexit will undoubtedly be challenging, and will throw up many threats; whereas the Space Industry Bill will offer opportunities. To be successful companies will need to tread a careful path.

Pixalytics: Five Years & Thriving!

Background Image: Sutichak Yachaingham / 123 Stock Photo

The start of June marked the five-year anniversary of Pixalytics!

For a small start-up business, like ours, five years is an important milestone. Depending on which you report you believe only around 50%, or even 40%, of new small business survive their five years! So we should definitely celebrate the fact that we’re still here!

The last twelve months have been successful for us. Our key highlights have included:

  • Continuing to grow our income year-on-year
  • Expanded our team to five, soon to be six, employees – which is a 100% increase over the last year!
  • Moved to a new office on Plymouth Science Park
  • Part of a consortium developing a Drought and Flood Mitigation Service (DFMS) in Uganda.
  • Secured our first European Contract and so now we are exporters!

It has been a lot of hard work, but we’re really pleased with what we’ve achieved.

In a similar blog last year, we wrote about our target of releasing an innovative series of automated Earth Observation products and services. You’ll have noticed that this is not listed in our highlights, as despite our efforts we’ve not managed to do this … yet.

We have made significant progress with our eStore. We have a number of products almost ready to go, the product interface has been developed and we’re currently developing the front end eCommerce website. We’re intending to go live with flooding, turbidity and ocean colour products. So watch this space, things will be happening later this year – we hope!

Launching the products is really the easy bit, the difficult part will be getting people to buy them and this a challenge which firms much larger than us are still to effectively solve. As a small business we tend to market through our website, social media and the odd exhibition. However, we’ll need to come up with some new cost-effective innovative ideas for our eStore if it is to be successful. We’re also participating in Europe wide projects established by EARSC and the Copernicus World Alliance looking at ways of developing the market and promoting Earth Observation products and services.

For the last couple of years we’ve quoted a phrase from ‘Worstward Ho’, a monologue by Samuel Beckett which is ‘Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try Again. Fail again. Fail better.’

This sums up our approach. We try things. If they don’t work out, we try something else. It’s worked okay so far.

Before we leave our five year celebration, we wanted to take the opportunity to thank all of the people who’ve helped us along our journey, including the readers of our blog.

Let’s hope we’re still here in another five years!

UK Space Conference Getting Ready For Take Off

Next week we’ll be in Manchester at the 2017 UK Space Conference.

The UK Space Conference is held every two years, and attracted over 1,000 delegates and over 100 exhibitors when held in Liverpool in 2015. It is a key event that brings together the UK Space Community and this year is taking place over three days, 30th May to the 1st June.

We are exhibiting on stand C7, near the centre of the hall, where you’ll be able to come and talk to us about our products and services including:

  • Atmospheric correction
  • Consultancy services
  • Education & training
  • Flood mapping
  • Ocean colour
  • Spatial analyses & data management
  • Terrestrial vegetation
  • Turbidity mapping

We’re also delighted to announce that our Flood Mapping work is one of the products highlighted in the Innovation Zone, which is sponsored by Innovate UK. It is a low cost floodwater mapping product based on Sentinel-1 radar data, which provides easy to understand flood information and maps through an online portal without the need for specialist knowledge. We have partnered with Harris Geospatial Solutions to provide a fully automated solution.

We’ll also have copies of our book for sale, ‘Practical Handbook of Remote Sensing’. This takes complete novices through the process of finding, downloading, processing, visualising and applying remote sensing satellite data using their own PC, open-source software and a standard internet connection.

The 2017 UK Space Conference itself begins on the Tuesday morning with ‘Space 101’, which is a series of workshops covering some of the key issues related to working in the space sector. The conference then kicks off at lunchtime on the Tuesday with an opening plenary on the latest developments in the UK space sector.

There is a networking event in the Exhibition Hall between 6pm and 9pm on Tuesday evening, and we’ll be on our stand all evening.

Wednesday is brimming over with workshops, presentations, plenary and poster sessions, culminating in the Gala Dinner and Sir Arthur Clarke Awards. Finally, Thursday has another busy day of workshops and plenary sessions, before the Conference closes in the afternoon.

We’re really excited about being in Manchester next week, and looking forward to meeting old and new friends.

We hope that any of you who at the Conference will come up and say hello! We’d love to meet you!

Pixalytics Goes To Space … Well, Nearly!

Last week the Pixalytics name got lifted towards space! In a previous blog we described how we were supporting the Plymouth University Space Society launching a weather balloon.

After a number of attempts were thwarted by the wind and weather patterns of Plymouth, last Friday was the big day. A small band of the Space Society pioneers alongside myself and Howard from Salcombe Gin, spent half an hour battling to control a weather balloon in the wind as it was pumped full of gas and had a small Pixalytics branded payload attached including a Go-Pro Camera, balloon locator, various battery packs and a small bottle of Salcombe Gin. At the top of the blog is an image of the gin high above Plymouth.

Once we were ready, the balloon was carefully walked back a few paces, and then with our hearts in our mouths, it was launched! We watched it rise gloriously until it disappeared into the low cloud that was covering the city. For anyone who wants to see the launch, it was filmed and streamed on Facebook and the recording can be found here.

Once the launch euphoria had subsided, the Space Society team jumped into a car to follow the balloon towards the predicted landing site of Taunton. The payload had a device inside which when called replied with the balloon’s location to enable progress to be tracked. The balloon actually ended up around thirty miles to the east of the prediction, coming to rest back on Earth in Yeovil. Once they got close, the team had to ask an elderly resident for permission to look through her garden for the payload package. However, it was a success and the payload was retrieved!!

On examination of the footage, sadly the Go-Pro seemed to malfunction about 15 minutes into the flight and therefore we were not able to get full flight footage. However, this is the space industry and not everything goes to plan. Once you launch most things are out of your hands!

From the flight length and distance travelled the Space Society team estimate that the balloon went up above 32,000 m. Whilst that is only about one third of the way to the Karman line, which sits around 100,000m and is commonly viewed as the boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and the outer space, it’s probably the highest point the Pixalytics name will ever get!

Readers will be aware that we do like the unusual marketing opportunity. We’ve previously had our name going at 100 miles per hour aboard a Caterham Formula One car, so who knows what might be next?

It was great to support local students with their adventure towards space, and hopefully it will inspire them to get a job in our industry and develop their own space career!

UKSEDS National Student Space Conference 2017

The 2017 UKSEDS National Student Space Conference took place last weekend at the University of Exeter and I was delighted to be asked to give a presentation.

UKSEDS, the acronym of the ‘UK Students for the Exploration and Development of Space’, is a charity dedicated to running events for space students and graduates. It is the UK branch of global community who have the aim of promoting space, space exploration and research.

The National Student Space Conference is in its 29th year, and 2017 was the first time I’d attended. I began the Saturday morning with a panel discussion on Exploration versus Exploitation with Dr David Parker from the European Space Agency, Cathrine Armour who leads the South West Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications and Andy Bacon from Thales Alenia Space UK.

One of the key points raised in the panel surrounded the topic’s title, and that it wasn’t a contest between exploration and exploitation, but rather that exploration is generally followed up with exploitation e.g. even in the 19th and 20th century explorations were politically motivated. However exploration is risky, and so it may be difficult to produce favourable outcomes that can be exploited.

Traditionally, commercial organisations were risk averse and therefore exploration has often been supported by public bodies. The exploitation came later from commercial organisations, but there’s now an increased appetite for risk through venture and crowd funding with space being a particular focus.

We also have hindsight of how we’ve altered planet Earth, and so need to apply this to space where we’ve completed our first survey of the solar system. Exploitation may not be far away as there are companies already aiming to mine asteroids, for example. So alongside investing in science and technology, we also need to invest in the governance to ensure that any future exploitation is undertaken responsibly.

Closer to Earth, it can be considered that we’ve not yet fully exploiting the potential of orbiting satellites. For example, we could use them for generating solar energy as a twenty four hour resource. So whilst exploration does tend to proceed exploitation, in fact it is probably more accurate to say we loop between the two with each providing feedback into the other.

My presentation session was between the coffee break and lunch. I was last up and followed Cathrine Armour, Matt Cosby from Goonhilly Earth Station Ltd and Dr Lucy Berthoud from the University of Bristol & Thales Alenia Space UK. My presentation was on “Innovations in Earth observation” and can be found here.

I particularly enjoyed Lucy’s talk where she posed the question – Is there life on Mars? She also had a crowd pleasing set of practical experiments involving dry ice and a rock from a local beach, which was a bit daunting to follow! Whilst Lucy concluded that Mars has the elements needed for life to exist in terms of nutrients, an energy source and liquid water, any life would likely to be microscopic.

However, there are large costs associated with us visiting Mars to confirm this. Ignoring the obvious cost of the flight, the decontamination aspect is huge. As mission planners have to avoid both forward and backward contamination, i.e., us contaminating Mars and the material brought back contaminating the Earth. This brings us back around to the morning panel and why exploration always tends to come first, supported by national or international bodies.

Overall, I had a great time at the Conference and would wholly recommend any students who have interest in space join UKSEDS. Membership is free and it can give you access to great events, opportunities and contacts. You can join here!

Sentinel To Be Launched

Sentinel-2 Image of Plymouth from 2016. Data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA.

Sentinel-2B was launched at 01:49 GMT on the 7th March from Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana. It’s the second of a constellation of optical satellites which are part of the European Commission’s Copernicus Programme.

Its partner Sentinel-2A was launched on the 23rd June 2015, and has been providing some stunning imagery over the last eighteen months like the picture of Plymouth above. We’ve also used the data within our own work. Sentinel-2B carries an identical Multispectral Imager (MSI) instrument to its twin with 13 spectral bands:

  • 4 visible and near infrared spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 10 m
  • 6 short wave infrared spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 20 m
  • 3 atmospheric correction bands with a spatial resolution of 60 m

With a swath width of 290 km the constellation will acquire data in a band of latitude extending from 56° South around Isla Hornos, Cape Horn, South America to 83° North above Greenland, together with observations over specific calibration sites, such as Dome-C in Antarctica. Its focus will be on continental land surfaces, all European islands, islands bigger than 100 square kilometres, land locked seas and coastal waters.

The satellites will orbit 180 degrees apart at an altitude of 786 km, which means that together they will revisit the same point on Earth every five days at the equator, and it may be faster for parts of southern Europe. In comparison, Landsat takes sixteen days to revisit the same point.

With all Copernicus data being made freely available to anyone, the short revisit time offers opportunities small and micro Earth Observation businesses to establish monitoring products and services without the need for significant investment in satellite data paving the way for innovative new solutions to the way in which certain aspects of the environment are managed. Clearly, five day revisits are not ‘real-time’ and the spatial resolution of Sentinel data won’t be suitable for every problem.There is joint work between the US and Europe, to have complementarity with Landsat-8, which has thermal bands, and allows a further opportunity for cloud-free data acquisitions. Also, commercial operators provide higher spatial resolution data.

At Pixalytics we’re supporters of open source in both software and imagery. Our first point of call with any client is to ask whether the solution can be delivered through free to access imagery, as this can make a significant cost saving and allow large archives to be accessed. Of course, for a variety of reasons, it becomes necessary to purchase imagery to ensure the client gets the best solution for their needs. Of course, applications often include a combination of free to access and paid for data.

Next’s week launch offers new opportunities for downstream developers and we’ll be interested to see how we can exploit this new resource to develop our products and services.

Have you read the top Pixalytics blogs of 2016?

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

As this is the final blog of the year we’d like to take a look back over the past fifty-two weeks and see which blog’s captured people’s attention, and conversely which did not!

It turns out that seven of the ten most widely viewed blogs of the last year weren’t even written in 2016. Four were written in 2015, and three were written in 2014! The other obvious trend is the interest in the number of satellites in space, which can be seen by the titles of six of the ten most widely read blogs:

We’ve also found these blogs quoted by a variety of other web pages, and the occasional report. It’s always interesting to see where we’re quoted!

The other most read blogs of the year were:

Whilst only three of 2016’s blogs made our top ten, this is partly understandable as they have less time to attract the interest of readers and Google. However, looking at most read blogs of 2016 shows an interest in the growth of the Earth Observation market, Brexit, different types of data and Playboy!

We’ve now completed three years of weekly blogs, and the views on our website have grown steadily. This year has seen a significant increase in viewed pages, which is something we’re delighted to see.

We like our blog to be of interest to our colleagues in remote sensing and Earth observation, although we also touch on issues of interest to the wide space, and small business, communities.

At Pixalytics we believe strongly in education and training in both science and remote sensing, together with supporting early career scientists. As such we have a number of students and scientists working with us during the year, and we always like them to write a blog. Something they’re not always keen on at the start! This year we’ve had pieces on:

Writing a blog each week can be hard work, as Wednesday mornings always seem to come around very quickly. However, we think this work adds value to our business and makes a small contribution to explaining the industry in which we work.

Thanks for reading this year, and we hope we can catch your interest again next year.

We’d like to wish everyone a Happy New Year, and a very successful 2017!

Is the UK Space Industry in good health?

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972. Image Credit: NASA

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972.
Image Credit: NASA

Last week the UK Space Agency issued its latest report on the Size and Health of the UK Space Industry, covering 2013/14 and 2014/15. There are a number of eye-catching headlines, but this broad-brush approach means that there are a lot of unanswered questions within the granularity of the report.

UK Space Industry Income is Worth £13.7 bn in 2014/15
This headline figure breaks down into 88% (£12 bn) for downstream activities. Whilst the 12% (£1.7 bn) for upstream activities is much smaller, it is higher than in previous years. Upstream refers to the part of the industry that build and launch satellites and sensors; whilst downstream encompasses the products and services that use the data those objects collect. Overall, the UK represents 6.5% of global space economy.

Unsurprisingly, given the above breakdown, space applications are the biggest segment of the industry, followed by space operations, space manufacturing and ancillary services.

This follows through into capabilities which are dominated by Broadcasting, Communications and Navigation & Timing which account for 56%, 19.6% and 12.2% of the space industry income respectively. Earth observation is listed with an income of £256 m, equating to 1.87% of the overall industry; although Meteorology is shown separately.

38,522 Jobs in the UK Space Industry in 2014/15
The space industry accounts for 0.12% of the total UK workforce, with 29,947 people working in downstream activities, and 8,575 working in upstream. It’s interesting to note the difference in the employment percentages, 78% and 22% respectively, compared to the income split above.

A fascinating fact in the report is that the average qualification level of space industry employees is higher than any other sector in England and Wales. With 74% of employees possessing a degree, 15% holding a HNC and the remaining 11% having other qualifications.

Space Industry Throughout the UK
All regions of the country have space companies. Of course, London and the South East – partially driven by the Harwell Campus – have the highest concentrations. We were delighted to see that the South West had was the third most populous area with 126 space organisations; although the South West is only fourth for Headquarters and income generated with £176 m worth of space business within the area.

UK Space Industry Customers
The report notes that the largest customer type is individual consumers, accounting for 54% of the income. However, given the domination of Broadcasting in the figures and with the majority of their customers being individual consumers this does skew the result. Equally limited information can be gleaned for the other customer types.

Personally, we’d be interested in seeing the customer type split for each capability. This would be much more useful, as at the moment these are a set of high level figures offering little, or no, insight.

Growth Slowing In the Space Industry?
The report has lots of positive statements about growth. There are at least four different income growth rates of 6.5%, 7.3%, 8.1% and 8.5% on page 10, depending on which time period you compare. Similarly, page 12 on employment lists growth rates of 5.8%, 6.0% and 6.7%.

All of this sounds great, but looking at the growth rates within in the tables for the last 7 years, quite wild swings year on year can be seen. The chart below shows some good growth rates, but the last two years are the lowest growth rates.

UK Space Industry Income & Employment Growth 2009 - 2016. Source: Size & Health of the UK Space Industry 2016, UK Space Agency

UK Space Industry Income & Employment Growth 2009 – 2016.
Source: Size & Health of the UK Space Industry 2016, UK Space Agency

To be fair the report itself notes a few caveats on the figures, such as new methodologies and the changing value of the pound. So care should be taken with such figures, but does it show signs that growth could be slowing for the industry?

Towards 2030 Ambitions
In February 2010 the UK Government set ambitious targets for the industry of:

  • 8% of the world space economy by 2020, and 10% by 2030.
  • 100,000 jobs created by 2030, taking the industry to 119,100

By the end of 2014/15 progress had been made towards both of these targets, with the industry representing 6.5% of the world space economy and having 38,522 jobs. Employment needs to grow by 7.8% each year to achieve the target, which is concerning given the current growth levels outlined above. If jobs aren’t being created, it’s unlikely the global market share target will be hit.

Shaping The Future
Finally, the UK Space Agency is currently seeking ideas and evidence on how to implement the 2015 National Space Policy. Anyone can submit their thoughts, and we’d encourage everyone to participate in helping shape the future of the UK space industry.

The submission document is straightforward asking for proposed actions, alongside evidence as why they are necessary, for each of the four principles of the National Space Policy

  • Space is of strategic importance to the UK because of the value that space programmes deliver back to public services, national security, science and innovation and the economy.
  • Preserving and promoting the safety and security of the unique space operating environment, free from interference.
  • Supporting the growth of a robust and competitive commercial space sector, underpinned by excellent academic research.
  • Cooperating internationally to create the legal frameworks for the responsible use of space and collaborating with other nations to deliver maximum benefit from UK investment in space.

Conclusion
The UK Space Industry is growing, but we need to ensure that we take advantage of every opportunity and develop, promote and encourage the use of space based applications and technology.

With all the concerns about economic certainty in the coming years, let’s make sure our industry rockets ahead!

Perspectives from the 12th Appleton Space Conference

Sam presenting at the 2016 Appleton Space Conference. Image courtesy of Deimos UK.

Sam presenting at the 2016 Appleton Space Conference. Image courtesy of Deimos UK.

Last week I attended the 12th Appleton Space Conference, it was the first time I’d been to one of these conferences, and I was excited to be giving a talk. It was hosted by RAL Space at the Harwell Campus.

After the welcome, the day started with a talk from Ross James (Deputy CEO at the UK Space Agency). He’s new to the space community, and so has enjoyed learning to understand it more fully. It was interesting to hear him reinforce the conclusion that the space industry’s value-added multiplier is two, but also that the industry needs to be more regionally and user focused.

Talks then followed by members of European Centre for Space Applications and Telecommunications (ECSAT, the UK’s ESA centre) and the Harwell Campus. I was surprised hear the comparison that the Harwell Campus site is roughly equivalent to the size of the City of London. Whilst Harwell doesn’t yet have any of the iconic tall buildings of the City, it does mean it has plenty of space to grow – with plans to increase the campus to 5 500 jobs by 2020; although it was acknowledged that an upgrade of the underpinning infrastructure would be needed to support this.

Sam presenting at the 2016 Appleton Space Conference. Image courtesy of Sara Huntingdon, Space for Smarter Government Programme.

Sam presenting at the 2016 Appleton Space Conference. Image courtesy of Sara Huntingdon, Space for Smarter Government Programme.

After the break we swapped to the topics of growth and innovation. The Autumn Statement had a strong focus on creating an environment for backing winners, with Innovation UK targeted on turning scientific excellence into economic input and scaling up high potential businesses. Two quotes from Tim Just (Innovate UK) that particularly resonated with me:

  • Research is the transformation of money into knowledge; and
  • Innovation transforms it back again.

There was also a debate on whether the space industry is reaching the threshold for a tipping point as outlined in Malcolm Gladwell’s criteria – i.e., where a slow moving trend reaches critical mass and causes a larger change such as the use of space applications and technologies becoming the everyday norm. The last two talks before lunch were on the development of new instruments – including the recently launched Sentinel-3 mission.

The first afternoon session was on understanding scientific advances. We started off by discussing exoplanets (a planet which orbits a star outside the solar system), followed by detecting signals using ground based radars and then understanding gravitational waves. My own talk on harnessing the increasing volumes of Earth Observation (EO) data came at the end of this session. I focused on discussing how there has been a massive change in the amount of available EO data with the need to bring the abilities of computers and humans together to best use this wealth of information.

The slides from my presentation can be found here. It was interesting to see some of the messages people took away from my talk on Twitter such as:

  • The availability of free satellite data is revolutionising remote sensing
  • We have to make the most out of the large quantity of data made available by Earth Observation

After lots of people coming to talk to me during coffee it was great to see Paul Jerram from e2V showing what EO sensors look like, ranging from much larger version of the snapshot imagers found in smart phones to time delay imagers that collect the signal over a period of time so we can have very high resolution imagery. For example, the planet Mars is being imaged at 30 cm resolution. Prof Martin Wooster (Kings College London) focused on biomass burning emissions. Research has shown that the Malaysian fires in 2015, linked to El Nino, contributed to 15% of the global carbon dioxide increases that year but also to thousands of deaths due to the air pollution they caused.

Our day of talks concluded with a keynote lecture by Tim Peake, giving a personal insight into his mission into Space onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an afternoon speaker I had a front row seat, and so I’m easily spotted on Tim’s room selfie! It was interesting to hear that Tim found adjusting to gravity back on Earth more difficult than weightlessness in space. How much he enjoyed his time on the ISS was obvious when he said he’d be happy to go again as the journey into space was particularly exhilarating.

Whilst aboard the ISS Tim used his limited amount of spare time on Sundays to take photographs of the Earth. Anyone who followed Tim on Twitter will have seen some of these, but he has also now brought out a book of these pictures titled ‘Hello, is this planet Earth? My View from the International Space Station’. An interesting footnote, although not from the conference, is that the UK has just purchased the capsule Tim used to get to, and from, space and it will go on display in the Science Museum next year.

Overall, it was a fantastic day jam packed with interesting, exciting and inspiring discussions about space!