Pixalytics Goes To Space … Well, Nearly!

Last week the Pixalytics name got lifted towards space! In a previous blog we described how we were supporting the Plymouth University Space Society launching a weather balloon.

After a number of attempts were thwarted by the wind and weather patterns of Plymouth, last Friday was the big day. A small band of the Space Society pioneers alongside myself and Howard from Salcombe Gin, spent half an hour battling to control a weather balloon in the wind as it was pumped full of gas and had a small Pixalytics branded payload attached including a Go-Pro Camera, balloon locator, various battery packs and a small bottle of Salcombe Gin. At the top of the blog is an image of the gin high above Plymouth.

Once we were ready, the balloon was carefully walked back a few paces, and then with our hearts in our mouths, it was launched! We watched it rise gloriously until it disappeared into the low cloud that was covering the city. For anyone who wants to see the launch, it was filmed and streamed on Facebook and the recording can be found here.

Once the launch euphoria had subsided, the Space Society team jumped into a car to follow the balloon towards the predicted landing site of Taunton. The payload had a device inside which when called replied with the balloon’s location to enable progress to be tracked. The balloon actually ended up around thirty miles to the east of the prediction, coming to rest back on Earth in Yeovil. Once they got close, the team had to ask an elderly resident for permission to look through her garden for the payload package. However, it was a success and the payload was retrieved!!

On examination of the footage, sadly the Go-Pro seemed to malfunction about 15 minutes into the flight and therefore we were not able to get full flight footage. However, this is the space industry and not everything goes to plan. Once you launch most things are out of your hands!

From the flight length and distance travelled the Space Society team estimate that the balloon went up above 32,000 m. Whilst that is only about one third of the way to the Karman line, which sits around 100,000m and is commonly viewed as the boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and the outer space, it’s probably the highest point the Pixalytics name will ever get!

Readers will be aware that we do like the unusual marketing opportunity. We’ve previously had our name going at 100 miles per hour aboard a Caterham Formula One car, so who knows what might be next?

It was great to support local students with their adventure towards space, and hopefully it will inspire them to get a job in our industry and develop their own space career!

Outstanding Science!

It’s British Science Week! Co-ordinated by the British Science Association (BSA) and funded by the UK Government through the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, it’s a celebration of science, engineering, technology and maths – often referred to as STEM.

The week runs from 10th to the 19th March which technically makes it a ten day festival – a slightly concerning lack of precision for a celebration of these subjects! There are events taking place all over the UK, and you can see here if there are any local to you. For us, there are nine events taking place in Plymouth. Highlights include:

  • Be a Marine Biologist for A Day running on the 16th and 17th at the Marine Biological Association
  • Science Week Challenge – Cliffhanger: On 17th of March teams of students from Secondary Schools across Plymouth will compete to design and build a machine to solve a problem.
  • Dartmoor Zoological Park running a STEM careers day. Although, sadly you’ve already missed this as it took place on Tuesday!

All of these, and the many others across the country, are fantastic for promoting, educating and inspiring everyone to get involved with STEM subjects and careers. Regularly readers know this is something that we’re very keen on at Pixalytics. Eighteen months ago we published a book, ‘Practical Handbook of Remote Sensing’, which aims to take complete beginners through the process of finding, downloading, processing and visualising remote sensing satellite data using just their home PC and an internet connection.

We were delighted to find out recently that our book has been chosen an Outstanding Academic Title (OAT) of 2016 by Choice, a publication of the Association of College & Research Libraries, a division of the American Libraries Association.

OAT’s are chosen from titles reviewed in Choice over the last year, and selected books demonstrate excellence in scholarship, presentation and a significant contribution to the field. The reviewer’s comments are integral to this process. Someone from San Diego State University reviewed our book last August and their comments included:

  • ‘a unique approach to the presentation of the subject’
  • ‘This book is successful in achieving its aim of making the science of remote sensing accessible to a broad readership.’
  • ‘Highly recommended. All library collections’

OAT’s are a celebration of the best academic books and Choice selected 500 titles out of 5,500 they reviewed last year. We’re very proud to have been included in this list.

Everyone can, and should, get involved in science. So why not go to one of the British Science Week events local to you, or if not you could always read a book!

Plymouth Student’s Shot at Space!

From left to right: Fraser Searle (President), Sam Kennerley (Secretary) of Plymouth University Space Society, with the equipment to launch the balloon.

Plymouth University’s Space Society plans to send a small bottle of gin ‘into space’ attached to a weather balloon at the end of March.

The aim is to send the bottle 100,000 feet above the Earth, equivalent to 30 kilometres, and then bring it back safely. On its return, in true student fashion, they intend to use it to drink a few ‘space cocktails’!

The idea for launching the weather balloon began last summer when Fraser Searle and Nick Hardacre, who lead the Space Society at Plymouth University, were looking for ways to create interest in space in the local community. They originally hoped to send a bottle of local gin up, but soon found the challenges of working in a sub zero environment. It would have taken a balloon one and half times the size of the current one and double the volume of helium, so they changed to the shot glass.

They’ll also be attaching cameras and tracking equipment to the six metre diameter balloon to record and monitor the journey. The students have a roller coaster of emotions at the moment as Fraser explained, “We’re feeling excited, but I do get waves of nerves as to whether the glass and the cameras will return unharmed. We’re also wondering if the pictures and videos will be clear.”

Technically, the weather balloon won’t get into space. It should reach the upper half of the stratosphere, an area known as near space. As this area stretches from 20km to 100km above the Earth, ‘near’ is a relative term.

Pixalytics got involved with the project before Christmas, when we helped with sponsorship to enable the students to finish purchasing the necessary equipment. We’re also hoping to provide support in reviewing and interpreting the images the cameras collect on the journey. It’ll be interesting to compare what the weather balloon sees, with what various satellite imagery shows.

We’re strong supporters of events that encourage students and early career scientists to enhance their understanding of remote sensing, space and science. We sponsor student conferences and prizes that take place in the UK. So, it’s fantastic to get involved in something much closer to home.

Launching a weather balloon requires permission from the Civil Aviation Authority, and is also highly weather dependent. A planned launched at the end of January had to be abandoned as the balloon was likely to end up in Portsmouth or Calais harbour.

However, the team have once again got the relevant permissions to try again this coming week. The exact launch date will depend on the wind and weather patterns around Plymouth, which are always fairly turbulent. Fraser said, “We’ll be glued to the online predictors to find a launch slot.”

This is great local project for Plymouth, and we’re pleased to be able to support it. We have our fingers crossed for suitable weather, but only time will tell if they manage to conquer space!

Supporting Chimpanzee Conservation from Space

Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Acquired by Sentinel-2 in December 2016. Image courtesy of ESA.

Being able to visualise the changing face of the planet over time is one of the greatest strengths of satellite remote sensing. Our previous blog showed how Dubai’s coastline has evolved over a decade, and last week NASA described interesting work they’re doing on monitoring habitat loss for chimpanzees in conjunction with the Jane Goodall Institute.

Jane Goodall has spent over fifty years working to protect and conserve chimpanzees from the Gombe National Park in Tanzania, and formed the Jane Goodall Institute in 1977. The Institute works with local communities to provide sustainable conservation programmes.

A hundred years ago more than one million chimpanzees lived in Africa, today the World Wildlife Fund estimate the population may only be around 150,000 to 250,000. The decline is stark. For example, the Ivory Coast populations have declined by 90% within the last twenty years.

One of the key factors contributing to this decline is habitat loss, mostly through deforestation; although other factors such as hunting, disease and illegal capture also contributed.

Forests cover around 31% of the planet, and deforestation occurs when trees are removed and the land has another use instead of being a forest. In chimpanzee habitats, the deforestation is mostly due to logging, mining and drilling for oil. This change in land use can be monitored from space using remote sensing. Satellites produce regular images which can be used to monitor changes in the natural environment, in turn giving valuable information to conservation charities and other organisations.

In 2000 Lilian Pintea, from the Jane Goodall Institute, was shown Landsat images comparing the area around the Gombe National Park in 1972 and 1999. The latter image showed huge deforestation outside the park’s boundary. The Institute have continued to use Landsat imagery to monitor what is happening around the National Park. In 2009 they began a citizen science project with local communities giving them smartphones to report their observations. Combining these with ongoing satellite data from NASA has helped develop and implement local plans for land use and protection of the forests. Further visualisation of this work can be found here. The image at the top was acquired Sentinel-2 in December 2016 and shows the Gombe National Park, although it is under a little haze.

The satellite data supplied by NASA comes from the Landsat missions, which currently have an archive of almost forty-five years of satellite data, which is freely available to anyone. We also used Landsat for data in our Dubai animation last week. Landsat captures optical data, which means it operates in a similar manner to the human eye – although the instruments also have infrared capabilities. However, one drawback of optical instruments is that they cannot see through clouds. Therefore, whilst Landsat is great for monitoring land use when there are clear skies, it can be combined with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), from the microwave spectrum, as it can see through both clouds and smoke. This combination enables land use and land change to monitored anywhere in the world. Using the freely available Landsat and Sentinel-1 SAR data you could monitor what is happening to the forests in your neighbourhoods.

Satellite data is powerful tool for monitoring changes in the environment, and with the archive of data available offers a unique opportunity to see what has happened over the last four decades.

Night-time Treats

This image of Rio de Janeiro was acquired on the night of July 20, 2012 by the VIIRS instrument aboard the Suomi NPP satellite. Data courtesy of NASA/NASA’s Earth Observatory.

This image of Rio de Janeiro was acquired on the night of July 20, 2012 by the VIIRS instrument aboard the Suomi NPP satellite. Data courtesy of NASA/NASA’s Earth Observatory.

The Opening Ceremony of the Rio Olympics featured a plane taking off from the Maracanã Stadium and treating us to a fantastic night flight over Rio. It was a beautiful sequence to celebrate the famous Brazilian aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont, for us at Pixalytics it led to a conversation about the beauty of night-time satellite imagery!

Currently, the best source of night-time imagery comes from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) which is one of five instruments aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite launched on 28 October 2011. Although, if you look on Twitter you’ll also see a huge number of night-time images taken by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. This data has been used as the basis of the Cities at Night citizen science project whose aim is to create a Google maps style map of the world – as the astronauts are using cameras to take photos of the places that interest them, and there is no georeferencing information, citizens identify the cities pictures.

In contrast VIIRS is an orbiting satellite and so continually collecting calibrated and georeferenced data of the whole globe. In the day VIIRS is collecting optical and temperature data over both the land and ocean, while at night it collects temperature data and the night-time imagery using the 750 m spatial resolution Day/Night Band (DNB). Working through both the night and day, the DNB needs to be calibrated through several orders of magnitude in brightness to accommodate the dramatic contrast between solar reflection and the darkness of night. Its forerunner was the uncalibrated Operational Linescan System (OLS) on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, whose primary aim was to study clouds, but when its data was declassified in the 1970s it generated a lot of interest in low light night-time observations.

The DNB VIIRS images, like the one at the top of the blog, show hubs of human activity and the road arteries that connect them, and so are of special interest to the Campaign for the Protection of Rural England who use these types of maps to protect dark skies. It also enables calculations of light pollution to be made, together with indications of the associated carbon emissions. The DNB can pick up many different phenomena. For example, aurorae are visible, as well as gas flares, volcanic activity, the lights of ships, sea ice and climatological monitoring of clouds. It’s even possible to see thunderstorms, although individual lightning flashes are hard to make out in these snapshots, the glow inside clouds caused by them are evident as bright strips with DNB imagery as seen in this image from over Louisiana, USA on 4 April 2012 (Miller et al., 2013).

Another interesting discovery in 2012 was the presence of a faint ‘nightglow’ in the upper atmosphere on moonless night over the Pacific. The DNB team were aiming to collect scenes of complete darkness for calibration purposes, but they found clouds were still clearly visible. This was due to an assortment of photochemical reactions, especially of the molecule fragment hydroxyl, which allows this nightglow to pick up subtle atmospheric phenomena such as gravity waves and the tops of anvil clouds.

Here we’ve gone from an aviation image inspired from 1903 to modern satellites, all via the Rio Olympics. It’s amazing where space can take you!

 

Blog written by Dr Louisa Reynolds and Andrew Lavender from Pixalytics Ltd.

Crowd Sourced Alphabets from Space

From the catalogue of the Aerial Bold Project.

From the catalogue of the Aerial Bold Project.

Today we’re looking at an unusual application of satellite data, namely using it to create alphabets.

The first example is the Aerial Bold Project, established by Benedikt Groß and Joey Lee in 2014. It set out to create typeface fonts from satellite imagery and they set-up a kickstarter campaign in November 2014 provide the funding for the project. The campaign raised $11,492 in thirty days from by 569 backers, and we were one of them! Regular blog readers will know we love anything quirky to do with satellite imagery, and this was something we wanted to support.

Having secured funding, the project established a crowd-sourcing app, called the Letter Finder, to allow anyone to review Mapbox satellite imagery to try and identify landscape features, natural or man-made, that looked like letters or numbers – and over 11,400 were identified from 22 different countries.

Our P from the Aerial Bold Project.

Our P from the Aerial Bold Project.

All images were recorded, catalogued, and rated for beauty and readability. As one of the backers we were entitled to own one of the letters in the catalogue, and it will come as no surprise that we went for a P for Pixalytics, which you can see here! It is a small island within the Zevenhuizerplas, a 1.5 km water body created by a dam on the northeast outskirts of Rotterdam, Netherlands. Our letter received top marks for beauty, but not for readability; we can’t really argue with that assessment, as technically the P is lying on its side on real life!

The Aerial Bold Project reviewed the catalogued letters to determine the best examples to create actual fonts. So far they have created three: Buildings, Suburbia and Provence. Sadly, our letter was not selected for any of the fonts. However, we think our P is beautiful and for us, a satellite image of trees surrounded by water is a great metaphor for the company.

The project website gives you access to the fonts, the whole catalogue of letters and a fun typewriter app which allows you create messages from the sourced images – as we have done with Pixalytics at the top of the blog.

Whilst researching this blog, I came across a second crowd-sourced alphabet from space! This one was co-ordinated by Adam Voiland, a science writer for NASA Earth Observatory. After seeing the letter V in smoke on a satellite image, he sought help from colleagues and readers to create an entire alphabet based on imagery and photographs taken by NASA.

Adam’s version is different from the Ariel Bold Project as it uses letters created by images of transient things such as smoke or phytoplankton plumes within the alphabet. It took Adam over three years to complete his alphabet and all twenty-six letters can be seen on the NASA Earth Observatory website. Being satellite geeks, we love the fact that Adam has captioned each image not only explaining what the image is of, but also describing the satellite and sensor that took the picture! It was great to see such a range of satellites used within the alphabet.

These alphabets are fantastic examples of unusual, innovative and fun ways of using satellite data, and we liked the fact that both were crowd-sourced. Why don’t you have a look at, and a play with, these crowd-sourced alphabets from space!

British Science Won’t Be Eclipsed

Hawthorn leaves opening in Plymouth on 18th March 2015

Hawthorn leaves opening in Plymouth on 18th March 2015

We’re celebrating science in this blog, as it’s British Science Week in the UK! Despite its name British Science Week is actually a ten day programme celebrating science, technology, engineering, and maths (STEM). The week is co-ordinated by the British Science Association, a charity founded in 1831.

The British Science Association, like ourselves at Pixalytics, firmly believe that science should be at heart of society and culture and have the desire to inform, educate, and inspire people to get interested and involved in science. They promote their aims by supporting a variety of conferences, festivals, awards, training and encouraging young people to get involved in STEM subjects.

British Science week is one of their major annual festivals, and has hundreds of events running up and down the country. The website has a search facility, so you can see what events are running locally. Down here in Plymouth, the events include Ocean Science at The National Marine Aquarium, tomorrow at Museum & Art Gallery learn about the science behind the headlines and on Saturday, also at the Museum, an animal themed day including some real mini-beasts from Dartmoor Zoo – the place that inspired the 2011 film ‘We Bought A Zoo’, which starred Matt Damon and Scarlett Johnansson.

If you can’t get to any of the events in your local area, British Science Week is also promoting two citizen’s science projects:

  • Nature’s Calendar run by the Woodland Trust, asking everyone to look out for up to six common natural events to see how fast spring is arriving this year. They want to be informed of your first sightings of the orange tipped butterfly, the 7-spot ladybird, frog spawn, oak leaves, Hawthorn leaves, and Hawthorn flowers. This will continue a dataset which began in 1736, and we thought the Landsat archive was doing well.
  • Worm Watch Lab – A project to help scientists better understand how our brain works by observing the egg laying behaviour of nematode worms. You watch a 30 second video, and click a key if you see a worm lay an egg. We’ve watched a few and are yet to see the egg laying moment, but all the video watching is developing a lot of datasets for the scientists.

If you are interested in Citizen Science and go to sea, why not get involved in the citizen science work we support, by taking part in the Secchi Disk Project. Phytoplankton underpin the marine food chain and is particularly sensitive to changes in sea-surface temperatures, so this project aims to better understand their current global phytoplankton abundance. You do this by lowering a Secchi disk, a plain white disk attached to a tape measure, over the side of a boat and then recording the depth below the surface where it disappears from sight. This measurement is uploaded to the website and helps develop a global dataset of seawater clarity, which turn indicates the amount of phytoplankton at the sea surface. All the details on how to get involved are on the website.

On Friday, nature is getting involved by providing a partial solar eclipse over the UK. Starting at around 8.30am the moon will take about an hour to get to the maximum effect where the partial eclipse will be visible to the majority of the country – although the level of cloud will determine exactly what you see. Plymouth will be amongst the first places in the country to see the maximum effect around 9.23am – 9.25am, however the country’s best views will be on the Isle of Lewis in Scotland with a 98% eclipse predicted. The only two landmasses who will see a total eclipse will be the Faroe Islands and the Norwegian arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The last total eclipse in the UK was on the 24th August 1999, and the next one isn’t due until 23 September 2090!

Although the eclipse is a spectacular natural event, remember not to look directly at the sun, as this can damage your eyes. To view the eclipse wear a pair of special eclipse glasses, use a pinhole camera or watch it on the television!

We fully support British Science Week, it’s a great idea and we hope it will inspire more people to get involved in science.

A Few Days In Portland: Phytoplankton, Sea Ice and Cake!

Early morning photograph of Portland, Maine

Early morning photograph of Portland, Maine

As I talked about in my last blog, this week I’m attending the Ocean Optics XXII Conference in Portland, Maine in the USA. I arrived last Thursday and spent the weekend at a two day pre-conference meeting entitled ‘Phytoplankton Composition From Space’; where we discussed techniques for mapping phytoplankton – the microscopic plants in the ocean.

The smallest phytoplankton taxa (group) are the single celled cyanobacteria known as blue-green algae, they are an ancient life form with a fossil remains of over 3.5 billion years old. They can be mapped from space using ocean colour satellites which measure a signal based on the scattering and absorption of light within the ocean. This enables Earth observation to map the total biomass, via the concentration of the main pigment that’s normally Chlorophyll, and also get a glimpse into which taxa are present.

Understanding the concentration, and diversity, of phytoplankton is valuable as they play a key role in climate processes by absorbing the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. In addition, they are the very essence of the bottom of the food chain, as they are eaten by zooplankton, who in turn are eaten by small fish and so on. Therefore, significant changes in the concentration or diversity of phytoplankton may have ripple effects through the aquatic food chain. The film Ocean Drifters provides an overview of the role of plankton in the ocean.

The conference itself began on Monday and we’ve had a number of interesting and varied presentations, but I’ve particularly enjoyed two plenary sessions. The first was by Don Perovich, of the Thayer School of Engineering looking at the impact of sunlight on sea ice in the artic. The brightness of sea ice determines the amount of light reflected back to space. If the ice is older, and hence snow covered, then it’s bright white whilst ice that’s melting is much darker due to the pools of water and so absorbs more sunlight. Therefore, there is a positive link between melting ice causing ice to melt quicker. In the Artic, sea ice reaches a minimum in September and causes an increase in melting. There is a scientific analysis on Arctic sea ice conditions here.

The second plenary was given by Johnathan Hair from NASA Langley Research Centre, presenting a paper co-authored with his colleague Yongziang Hu and Michael Behrenfeld from Oregon State University. It focussed on using lasers for mapping vertical profiles throughout the water column from space and applications for inland waters, and how this might be used in global ocean plankton research. Regular readers of the blog will know this is topic is something that particularly interests me, and I have previously written about the subject.

Tuesday morning was eventful, as the conference venue was evacuated just as the first session was starting, due to a strong smell of gas. I took the unexpected networking opportunity, and to catch up with one of my former colleagues over a coffee. Thankfully, we were let back into the venue a couple of hours later, and everything went ahead with a bit of rescheduling. My plenary session on Crowdfunding Ocean Optics went ahead in the afternoon, and seemed to generate a good level of interest. I had lot of questions within the session, and a number of people sought me out during the rest of the day to discuss the idea and the project.

I’ve really enjoyed my time in Portland, and have found a fantastic coffee shop and bakery – Bam Bam Bakery on Commercial Street – which I highly recommend! I’m looking forward to the rest of the week.

Citizen Science, Secchi Disks & Ocean Optics

Tomorrow I’m off to the Ocean Optics conference, which has taken place every two years since 1965 and brings together specialists united by light in the ocean; this year the conference has topics as varied as environmental management, fluorescence, remote sensing, phytoplankton, sediments and underwater imaging.

Secchi disk measurements, as of mid October 2014

Secchi disk measurements, as of mid October 2014

I first came to Ocean Optics in 2006, when it was held in Montreal, Canada. I enjoyed it so much I’ve attend every one since, which have been in Castelvecchio (Italy), Anchorage (USA) and Glasgow (Scotland), and this time we are in Portland, in Maine USA. One of the things I really like it is, unlike large conferences, there are no parallel sessions, and so I don’t have to make any difficult decisions on which speakers I can, and those I can’t, see. Conferences can reinforce the silo approach, with the Ocean Colour group meeting in one room and the land remote sensors meeting in another. I think the Ocean Optics format promotes a more collaborative atmosphere, where you see a more diverse range of presentations and people. The collaborative approach to research and innovation is at the centre of my philosophy of working, and so Pixalytics is also one of the conference sponsors.

Next Tuesday, I’m giving a keynote presentation on Crowdsourcing Ocean Optics. My presentation will bring together the topics of Citizen Science, collaborative research that includes members of the public in any one of a variety of way, and Earth observation (EO) data acquired via ocean colour satellites; one example of this is the Secchi Disk project.

A Secchi disk, originally created in 1865 by Father Pietro Angelo Secchi – who was the
Pope’s astronomer, is a flat white disk 30cm in diameter, attached to a tape measure or a rope and also weighted from below. The Secchi Disk is lowered vertically into the water from the side of a boat, and the point at which the disk just disappears from sight is recorded. This depth measures the turbidity of the water, which is influenced by the amount of phytoplankton in the water column.

The Secchi Disk project developed smartphone Apps to allow participants to use a homemade Secchi disk and their smartphone / tablet to record and upload depth data alongside positional information. Through everyone uploading their measurements we are building up a global map of Secchi depths.

The project is a collaboration between Dr Richard Kirby who leads the project and publicity, with Dr Nicholas Outram and Dr Nigel Barlow (Plymouth University) as the App developers, and myself for the online database and EO linkages. The Apps were released at the end of February 2013, and since then 481 Secchi disk measurements have been collected globally; see the figure at the top that shows the global distribution of the uploaded data with the coloured Secchi disks indicating the values recorded.

The Secchi Disk project data is being compared to ocean colour satellite measurements as a cross-validation exercise and, in the longer term, to contribute to our understanding of phytoplankton dynamics. Why don’t you become part of the growing citizen science movement, go on take a measurement and upload it!

America’s Roadmap for Earth Observations

Have you all been keeping up with your reading of policy documents issued by the Executive Office of the President of the United States? If not, you may have missed their National Plan for Civil Earth Observations (EO), issued a couple of weeks ago. Given the US Government is the largest provider of EO data in the world this is important for everyone working in the field, particularly as it estimates that EO activities are worth $30 billion to the US economy.

The National Plan builds on the US National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations issued in 2013; such national Earth observations strategies aren’t unusual, the UK has issued two in recent years with the UK Space Agency Earth Observation Strategy in October 2013 and the Department of Energy and Climate Change Earth Observation Strategy in June 2012. However, what makes the National Plan more interesting, and valuable, is that it ranks US priorities for civil EO together with the actions they intend to take to deliver them.

Landsat 8 showing London, data courtesy of the USGS

Landsat 8 showing London, data courtesy of the USGS

The plan identifies five priorities, with the top two focussing on achieving continuity of long-term sustained EO. The number one priority is to maintain observations considered vital to public safety; national economic and security interests; and critical to scientific research; this includes the continuity of Landsat multispectral information, the GPS network and a variety of weather, land and ocean measurements. Second priority is observations focussing on changes in climate, greenhouse gases, biodiversity and ecosystems often in collaboration with international partners. The third priority surrounds short-term experimental observations of less than seven years duration, such as measurements for specific scientific research, first-of-their-kind observations, innovations and proof of concept work. The final two priorities are around improvements to service-life extensions; and the assessment, and prioritization, of EO systems.

  1. Whilst the priorities are interesting, far more interesting, and valuable, are the eight actions the US Government intends to take to deliver these priorities:
    Increase the integration of EO data, and making data available to everyone irrespective of the original purpose. By eliminating the silo approach to data, it will offer greater potential for innovative research.
  2. Implement the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) to provide uniform methodologies and practices for the handling of EO data to enable a wider group of users, without specialist knowledge, to find, obtain, evaluate, understand, compare and use new and legacy data.
  3. Increase efficiency and cost savings through streamlining processes, coordinated acquisition of data, cooperation and collaborative working with commercial and non- US owned satellites.
  4. Improve spatial resolution, temporal cycle, sample density and geographic coverage of observation networks with both new observation systems and technical upgrades.
  5. Maintain the physical, computing, communication and human infrastructure required to deliver EO.
  6. Encourage private companies to invest in the space sector. However, it makes clear that it intends to maintain the principles of open data sharing which will make it interesting to see how, and where, private firms will get returns on their investments.
  7. Continuing to work with other international bodies and space agencies to provide access to greater EO data and supporting collaborative research.
  8. Using citizen science, crowdsourcing and private sector initiatives to leverage EO data innovations.

The National Plan is a detailed document and it will be interesting to see the UK Space Agency, or perhaps the European Space Agency, version. Any EO business working in, or with firms in, the US needs to begin planning for these developments. Would does your business need to do to reposition your core competences, skill base or infrastructure to be able to exploit these opportunities? Even if you don’t currently work in the US take note, the journey outlined will impact the EO community.