September is a busy month for Earth observation satellites, and so here is a round-up of the month.
The Indian Space Research Agency (ISRA) launched the INSAT-3DR weather satellite on September 8th into a geostationary orbit. It carries a multi-spectral imager capable of collecting data in six wavebands: visible, shortwave and midwave infrared, water vapour and two thermal bands. Taking an image every 26 minutes it will be used to monitor cloud patterns and storm systems, collecting data about outgoing longwave radiation, precipitation estimates, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), snow cover and wind speeds.
The second major launch took place on September 15th, from Europeâ€™s Space Centre in French Guiana, when five new Earth observation satellites were put into orbit.
- Four of these satellites, SkySats 4, 5, 6 & 7, were launched for the commercial company Terra Bella â€“ which is owned by Google. Itâ€™s reported that they have informally named these satellites after the Star Wars characters: R2D2, Luke, C3PO and Leia! These small satellites provide 90 cm resolution for panchromatic images and 2 m for visible and near infrared wavebands. They also offer video acquired at 30 frames per second with a resolution of 1.1 m.
- In addition, this launch brought a new country into the Earth Observation satellite owning family, as Peru launched PeruSAT-1 which will be operated by their military authorities. This satellite is in a 695 km sun-synchronous low Earth orbit and will provide imagery in the visible light wavebands with a 70 cm resolution. The data is expected to help study forest health, monitor illegal logging and gold mining, and provide support with natural disasters. However, the details of who can access to the data, the cost and how to access it are still to be made public.
Launches to Come
Last week we said DigitalGlobeâ€™s WorldView-4 satellite was due to launch on the Friday. The problem of having a blog go live before an event means you can be wrong, and on this occasion we were! Fridayâ€™s launch was postponed for two days due to a leak during the propellant loading. Unfortunately, a wildfire then broke out near the Vandenburg Air Force base, and the launch had to be postponed a second time. It is hoped it will go ahead before the end of the month.
Following on from INSAT-3DR, ISRA is due to launch another four satellites in the last week of September including:
- Indiaâ€™s ScatSat, a replacement for the Oceansat-2. Carrying OSCAT (OceanSat-2 Scanning Scatterometer) it will offer data related to weather forecasting, sea surface winds, cyclone prediction and tracking satellite. The data collected will be used by organisations globally including NASA, NOAA and EUMETSAT.
- A second Earth observation satellite on the launch is Algeriaâ€™s first CubeSat – AlSat Nano. It was designed and built at the Surry Space Centre by Algerian Graduate students, as part of joint programme between the UK Space Agency and the Algerian Space Agency. It will carry a camera, magnetometer and will be testing an innovative solar cell which is one tenth of a millimetre thick.
Launches Being Planned
The next country to join the Earth Observation community could well be North Korea. It was reported this week that they had carried out a successful ground test of a new rocket engine which would give them the capacity to launch various satellites, including Earth Observation ones.
Airbus Defence and Space also announced plans this week for four Earth observation satellites to be launched in 2020 and 2021. These will provide very high resolution imagery and continuity for the existing two PlĂ©iades satellites.
As we’ve previously discussed, the trend in launches continues apace for the Earth observation community.