Last week NASA, NOAA, USGS and the US Environmental Protection Agency announced a $3.6 million partnership to use satellite data as an early warning system for harmful freshwater algae blooms.
An algae bloom refers to a high concentration of micro algae, known as phytoplankton, in a body of water. Blooms can grow quickly in nutrient rich waters and potentially have toxic effects. Shellfish filter large quantities of water and can concentrate the algae in their tissues, allowing it to enter the marine food chain and potentially causing a risk to human consumption. Blooms can also contaminate drinking water. For example, last August over 40,000 people were banned from drinking water in Toledo, Ohio, after an algal bloom in Lake Erie.
The partnership will use the satellite remote sensing technique of ocean colour as the basis for the early warning system.Â Ocean colour isnâ€™t a new technique, it has been recorded as early as the 1600s when Henry Hudson noted in his shipâ€™s log that a sea pestered with ice had a black-blue colour.
Phytoplankton within algae blooms are microscopic, some only 1,000th of a millimetre in size, and so itâ€™s not possible to see individual organisms from space. Phytoplankton contain a photosynthetic pigment visible with the human eye, and in sufficient quantities this material can be measured from space. As the phytoplankton concentration increases the reflectance in the blue waveband decreases, whilst the reflectance in the green waveband increases slightly. Therefore, a ratio of blue to green reflectance can be used to derive quantitative estimates of the concentration of phytoplankton.
The US agency partnership is the first step in a five-year project to create a reliable and standard method for identifying blooms in US freshwater lakes and reservoirs for the specific phytoplankton species, cyanobacteria. To detect blooms it will be necessary to study local environments to understand the factors that influence the initiation and evolution of a bloom.
It wonâ€™t be easy to create this methodology as inland waters, unlike open oceans, have a variety of other organic and inorganic materials suspended in the water through land surface run-off, which will also have a reflectance signal. Hence, it will be necessary to ensure that other types of suspended particulate matter are excluded from the prediction methodology.
Itâ€™s an exciting development in our specialist area of ocean colour. We wish them luck and weâ€™ll be looking forward to their research findings in the coming years.