Supporting Chimpanzee Conservation from Space

Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Acquired by Sentinel-2 in December 2016. Image courtesy of ESA.

Being able to visualise the changing face of the planet over time is one of the greatest strengths of satellite remote sensing. Our previous blog showed how Dubai’s coastline has evolved over a decade, and last week NASA described interesting work they’re doing on monitoring habitat loss for chimpanzees in conjunction with the Jane Goodall Institute.

Jane Goodall has spent over fifty years working to protect and conserve chimpanzees from the Gombe National Park in Tanzania, and formed the Jane Goodall Institute in 1977. The Institute works with local communities to provide sustainable conservation programmes.

A hundred years ago more than one million chimpanzees lived in Africa, today the World Wildlife Fund estimate the population may only be around 150,000 to 250,000. The decline is stark. For example, the Ivory Coast populations have declined by 90% within the last twenty years.

One of the key factors contributing to this decline is habitat loss, mostly through deforestation; although other factors such as hunting, disease and illegal capture also contributed.

Forests cover around 31% of the planet, and deforestation occurs when trees are removed and the land has another use instead of being a forest. In chimpanzee habitats, the deforestation is mostly due to logging, mining and drilling for oil. This change in land use can be monitored from space using remote sensing. Satellites produce regular images which can be used to monitor changes in the natural environment, in turn giving valuable information to conservation charities and other organisations.

In 2000 Lilian Pintea, from the Jane Goodall Institute, was shown Landsat images comparing the area around the Gombe National Park in 1972 and 1999. The latter image showed huge deforestation outside the park’s boundary. The Institute have continued to use Landsat imagery to monitor what is happening around the National Park. In 2009 they began a citizen science project with local communities giving them smartphones to report their observations. Combining these with ongoing satellite data from NASA has helped develop and implement local plans for land use and protection of the forests. Further visualisation of this work can be found here. The image at the top was acquired Sentinel-2 in December 2016 and shows the Gombe National Park, although it is under a little haze.

The satellite data supplied by NASA comes from the Landsat missions, which currently have an archive of almost forty-five years of satellite data, which is freely available to anyone. We also used Landsat for data in our Dubai animation last week. Landsat captures optical data, which means it operates in a similar manner to the human eye – although the instruments also have infrared capabilities. However, one drawback of optical instruments is that they cannot see through clouds. Therefore, whilst Landsat is great for monitoring land use when there are clear skies, it can be combined with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), from the microwave spectrum, as it can see through both clouds and smoke. This combination enables land use and land change to monitored anywhere in the world. Using the freely available Landsat and Sentinel-1 SAR data you could monitor what is happening to the forests in your neighbourhoods.

Satellite data is powerful tool for monitoring changes in the environment, and with the archive of data available offers a unique opportunity to see what has happened over the last four decades.

British Science Won’t Be Eclipsed

Hawthorn leaves opening in Plymouth on 18th March 2015

Hawthorn leaves opening in Plymouth on 18th March 2015

We’re celebrating science in this blog, as it’s British Science Week in the UK! Despite its name British Science Week is actually a ten day programme celebrating science, technology, engineering, and maths (STEM). The week is co-ordinated by the British Science Association, a charity founded in 1831.

The British Science Association, like ourselves at Pixalytics, firmly believe that science should be at heart of society and culture and have the desire to inform, educate, and inspire people to get interested and involved in science. They promote their aims by supporting a variety of conferences, festivals, awards, training and encouraging young people to get involved in STEM subjects.

British Science week is one of their major annual festivals, and has hundreds of events running up and down the country. The website has a search facility, so you can see what events are running locally. Down here in Plymouth, the events include Ocean Science at The National Marine Aquarium, tomorrow at Museum & Art Gallery learn about the science behind the headlines and on Saturday, also at the Museum, an animal themed day including some real mini-beasts from Dartmoor Zoo – the place that inspired the 2011 film ‘We Bought A Zoo’, which starred Matt Damon and Scarlett Johnansson.

If you can’t get to any of the events in your local area, British Science Week is also promoting two citizen’s science projects:

  • Nature’s Calendar run by the Woodland Trust, asking everyone to look out for up to six common natural events to see how fast spring is arriving this year. They want to be informed of your first sightings of the orange tipped butterfly, the 7-spot ladybird, frog spawn, oak leaves, Hawthorn leaves, and Hawthorn flowers. This will continue a dataset which began in 1736, and we thought the Landsat archive was doing well.
  • Worm Watch Lab – A project to help scientists better understand how our brain works by observing the egg laying behaviour of nematode worms. You watch a 30 second video, and click a key if you see a worm lay an egg. We’ve watched a few and are yet to see the egg laying moment, but all the video watching is developing a lot of datasets for the scientists.

If you are interested in Citizen Science and go to sea, why not get involved in the citizen science work we support, by taking part in the Secchi Disk Project. Phytoplankton underpin the marine food chain and is particularly sensitive to changes in sea-surface temperatures, so this project aims to better understand their current global phytoplankton abundance. You do this by lowering a Secchi disk, a plain white disk attached to a tape measure, over the side of a boat and then recording the depth below the surface where it disappears from sight. This measurement is uploaded to the website and helps develop a global dataset of seawater clarity, which turn indicates the amount of phytoplankton at the sea surface. All the details on how to get involved are on the website.

On Friday, nature is getting involved by providing a partial solar eclipse over the UK. Starting at around 8.30am the moon will take about an hour to get to the maximum effect where the partial eclipse will be visible to the majority of the country – although the level of cloud will determine exactly what you see. Plymouth will be amongst the first places in the country to see the maximum effect around 9.23am – 9.25am, however the country’s best views will be on the Isle of Lewis in Scotland with a 98% eclipse predicted. The only two landmasses who will see a total eclipse will be the Faroe Islands and the Norwegian arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The last total eclipse in the UK was on the 24th August 1999, and the next one isn’t due until 23 September 2090!

Although the eclipse is a spectacular natural event, remember not to look directly at the sun, as this can damage your eyes. To view the eclipse wear a pair of special eclipse glasses, use a pinhole camera or watch it on the television!

We fully support British Science Week, it’s a great idea and we hope it will inspire more people to get involved in science.

Citizen Science, Secchi Disks & Ocean Optics

Tomorrow I’m off to the Ocean Optics conference, which has taken place every two years since 1965 and brings together specialists united by light in the ocean; this year the conference has topics as varied as environmental management, fluorescence, remote sensing, phytoplankton, sediments and underwater imaging.

Secchi disk measurements, as of mid October 2014

Secchi disk measurements, as of mid October 2014

I first came to Ocean Optics in 2006, when it was held in Montreal, Canada. I enjoyed it so much I’ve attend every one since, which have been in Castelvecchio (Italy), Anchorage (USA) and Glasgow (Scotland), and this time we are in Portland, in Maine USA. One of the things I really like it is, unlike large conferences, there are no parallel sessions, and so I don’t have to make any difficult decisions on which speakers I can, and those I can’t, see. Conferences can reinforce the silo approach, with the Ocean Colour group meeting in one room and the land remote sensors meeting in another. I think the Ocean Optics format promotes a more collaborative atmosphere, where you see a more diverse range of presentations and people. The collaborative approach to research and innovation is at the centre of my philosophy of working, and so Pixalytics is also one of the conference sponsors.

Next Tuesday, I’m giving a keynote presentation on Crowdsourcing Ocean Optics. My presentation will bring together the topics of Citizen Science, collaborative research that includes members of the public in any one of a variety of way, and Earth observation (EO) data acquired via ocean colour satellites; one example of this is the Secchi Disk project.

A Secchi disk, originally created in 1865 by Father Pietro Angelo Secchi – who was the
Pope’s astronomer, is a flat white disk 30cm in diameter, attached to a tape measure or a rope and also weighted from below. The Secchi Disk is lowered vertically into the water from the side of a boat, and the point at which the disk just disappears from sight is recorded. This depth measures the turbidity of the water, which is influenced by the amount of phytoplankton in the water column.

The Secchi Disk project developed smartphone Apps to allow participants to use a homemade Secchi disk and their smartphone / tablet to record and upload depth data alongside positional information. Through everyone uploading their measurements we are building up a global map of Secchi depths.

The project is a collaboration between Dr Richard Kirby who leads the project and publicity, with Dr Nicholas Outram and Dr Nigel Barlow (Plymouth University) as the App developers, and myself for the online database and EO linkages. The Apps were released at the end of February 2013, and since then 481 Secchi disk measurements have been collected globally; see the figure at the top that shows the global distribution of the uploaded data with the coloured Secchi disks indicating the values recorded.

The Secchi Disk project data is being compared to ocean colour satellite measurements as a cross-validation exercise and, in the longer term, to contribute to our understanding of phytoplankton dynamics. Why don’t you become part of the growing citizen science movement, go on take a measurement and upload it!