Supporting Chimpanzee Conservation from Space

Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Acquired by Sentinel-2 in December 2016. Image courtesy of ESA.

Being able to visualise the changing face of the planet over time is one of the greatest strengths of satellite remote sensing. Our previous blog showed how Dubai’s coastline has evolved over a decade, and last week NASA described interesting work they’re doing on monitoring habitat loss for chimpanzees in conjunction with the Jane Goodall Institute.

Jane Goodall has spent over fifty years working to protect and conserve chimpanzees from the Gombe National Park in Tanzania, and formed the Jane Goodall Institute in 1977. The Institute works with local communities to provide sustainable conservation programmes.

A hundred years ago more than one million chimpanzees lived in Africa, today the World Wildlife Fund estimate the population may only be around 150,000 to 250,000. The decline is stark. For example, the Ivory Coast populations have declined by 90% within the last twenty years.

One of the key factors contributing to this decline is habitat loss, mostly through deforestation; although other factors such as hunting, disease and illegal capture also contributed.

Forests cover around 31% of the planet, and deforestation occurs when trees are removed and the land has another use instead of being a forest. In chimpanzee habitats, the deforestation is mostly due to logging, mining and drilling for oil. This change in land use can be monitored from space using remote sensing. Satellites produce regular images which can be used to monitor changes in the natural environment, in turn giving valuable information to conservation charities and other organisations.

In 2000 Lilian Pintea, from the Jane Goodall Institute, was shown Landsat images comparing the area around the Gombe National Park in 1972 and 1999. The latter image showed huge deforestation outside the park’s boundary. The Institute have continued to use Landsat imagery to monitor what is happening around the National Park. In 2009 they began a citizen science project with local communities giving them smartphones to report their observations. Combining these with ongoing satellite data from NASA has helped develop and implement local plans for land use and protection of the forests. Further visualisation of this work can be found here. The image at the top was acquired Sentinel-2 in December 2016 and shows the Gombe National Park, although it is under a little haze.

The satellite data supplied by NASA comes from the Landsat missions, which currently have an archive of almost forty-five years of satellite data, which is freely available to anyone. We also used Landsat for data in our Dubai animation last week. Landsat captures optical data, which means it operates in a similar manner to the human eye – although the instruments also have infrared capabilities. However, one drawback of optical instruments is that they cannot see through clouds. Therefore, whilst Landsat is great for monitoring land use when there are clear skies, it can be combined with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), from the microwave spectrum, as it can see through both clouds and smoke. This combination enables land use and land change to monitored anywhere in the world. Using the freely available Landsat and Sentinel-1 SAR data you could monitor what is happening to the forests in your neighbourhoods.

Satellite data is powerful tool for monitoring changes in the environment, and with the archive of data available offers a unique opportunity to see what has happened over the last four decades.

Islands of Sand

Animation showing the creation of islands in Dubai between 2001 & 2009 using Landsat images. Data courtesy of NASA.

This week we’re focusing on the development of Dubai’s land-coast interface between July 2001 and October 2009, looking specifically at the creation of the Palm islands and the World Archipelago. Dubai is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates, home to 2.7 million people as of January 2017. In a place where Dubai police vehicles include a Lamborghini and a Ferrari, and where it’s possible to buy gold bars from vending machines perhaps it’s not surprising to see the creation of extravagant islands.

Palm Islands & The World Archipelago

In the animation at the top of the blog, the development of the Palm Islands and The World Archipelago are clearly visible. The first island created was Palm Jumeirah, the smallest of the three planned palm islands, and can be seen just off centre on the animation. It consists of a tree trunk, a crown with seventeen fronds and a surrounding crescent, and is approximately 25 square kilometres in size. Construction began in 2001 and was completed in 2006. The workers used GPS signals to determine the correct place to deposit sand to create the palm effect.

Built in tandem were the Palm Jebel Ali and The World Archipelago. Construction began in 2002 and was expected to be completed in 2015, however work stopped in 2008 due to the financial crisis. Work has remained suspended on Palm Jebel Ali, but development on the World may be about to start. The World has three hundred islands reclaimed from the sea, but most of them are bare sand. In the last twelve months there have been rumours that ‘The Heart of Europe’ project and floating seahorses around St Petersburg island could be developed in the near future.

It is also possible to see the preliminary creation of Palm Deira at the top of the animation. 300 million cubic metres of sand were used to form the initial reclamation. However, between 2009 and 2016 there has been no further development.

Images of Dubai in 2001, left, and 2009 taken by Landsat 7. Data courtesy of NASA.

It is also worth noting the significant urban sprawl between the first and last images. Dubai’s population increased by 95%, from 910,336 to 1,770,978, during the period we’re looking at and whilst the growth of Dubai is obvious, it is particularly visible southeast of the Palm Jumeirah development.

Creating the Time Series Animation

The animation was created using the first (blue) visible band of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument. In May 2003, the scan line corrector – used to compensate for forward motion of the spacecraft, ensuring scan lines are parallel – failed. Consequently, the instrument images in a zigzag fashion; some data is captured twice, whilst some is not captured at all. As a result, 22 % of data in Landsat 7 images post May 2003 are missing. To compensate for this we’ve used a Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) tool to fill “no data” regions by interpolating from nearby valid pixels. The results, whilst not perfect, are nearly indistinguishable at this resolution.

Impacts of the Islands

The development of these islands has not been without its criticism as it has impacted the local ecology. The dredging of sand has increased the turbidity of the seawater, with sediment transport evident in the animation, which has damaged coral reefs. In addition, water around parts of the islands can remain almost stationary for weeks, increasing the risk of algal blooms. Whilst fish have returned to these waters, they are not the same species as were there before.

Viewed from space, both the speed and scale of the development is mesmerising. It is no surprise that tourism is a vitally important part of the local economy, attracting more than 13 million visitors in 2014. With the limitations of available land in Dubai, developments are sure to start again.

 

Blog produced by Tom Jones on work placement with Pixalytics Ltd.

Will Earth Observation’s power base shift in 2017?

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972. Image Credit: NASA

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972.
Image Credit: NASA

We’re only a few days into 2017, but this year may see the start of a seismic shift in the Earth Observation (EO) power base.

We’ve previously described how the sustainable EO industry really began this week thirty nine years ago. On 6th January 1978 NASA deactivated Landsat-1; it had already launched Landsat-2, carrying the same sensors, three years earlier and with guaranteed data continuity our industry effectively began.

Since then the USA, though the data collected by NASA and NOAA satellites, has led the EO global community. This position was cemented in 2008 when it made all Landsat data held by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) freely available, via the internet, to anyone in the world. This gave scientists three decades worth of data to start investigating how the planet had changed, and companies sprang up offering services based entirely on Landsat data. This model of making data freely available has been so transformational, that the European Union decided to follow it with its Copernicus Programme.

Landsat-1 and 2 were followed by 4, 5, 7 & 8 – sadly Landsat 6 never made its orbit – and Landsat 9 is planned for launch in 2020. The USA’s role EO leadership has never been in question, until now.

US President-elect Donald Trump and his team have already made a number of statements indicating that they intended to cut back on NASA’s Earth Science activities. There are a variety of rumours suggesting reasons for this change of approach. However, irrespective of the reason, slashing the current $2 billion Earth Science budget will have huge consequences. Whilst all of this is just conjecture at the moment, the reality will be seen after 20th January.

Against this America backdrop sits the Copernicus Programme, with the European Space Agency due to launch another three satellites this year:

  • Sentinel 2B is planned for March. This is the second of the twin constellation optical satellites offering a spatial resolution of 10 m for the visible bands. The constellation will revisit the same spot over the equator every five days, with a shorter temporal resolution for higher latitudes.
  • June is the scheduled month for the launch of the Sentinel 5 Precursor EO satellite to measure air quality, ozone, pollution and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere. This will be used to reduce the data gaps between Envisat, which ended in 2012, and the launch of Sentinel-5.
  • Sentinel 3B is due to launched in the middle of the year, and like 2B is the second in a twin satellite constellation. This pair is mainly focussed on the oceans and measure sea surface topography, sea and land surface temperature, and ocean and land colour. It will provide global coverage every two days with Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) and the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI).

These launches will take give the Copernicus programme seven satellites collecting a wide variety of optical and radar data across the entire planet, which is then made freely available to anyone. It’s obvious to see what will fill any vacuum created by a reduction in Earth Science in the USA.

Depending on how much of the next US President’s rhetoric is turned into action, we may start to see the shift of the EO power base to Europe. Certainly going to be an interesting year ahead!

Have you read the top Pixalytics blogs of 2016?

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

As this is the final blog of the year we’d like to take a look back over the past fifty-two weeks and see which blog’s captured people’s attention, and conversely which did not!

It turns out that seven of the ten most widely viewed blogs of the last year weren’t even written in 2016. Four were written in 2015, and three were written in 2014! The other obvious trend is the interest in the number of satellites in space, which can be seen by the titles of six of the ten most widely read blogs:

We’ve also found these blogs quoted by a variety of other web pages, and the occasional report. It’s always interesting to see where we’re quoted!

The other most read blogs of the year were:

Whilst only three of 2016’s blogs made our top ten, this is partly understandable as they have less time to attract the interest of readers and Google. However, looking at most read blogs of 2016 shows an interest in the growth of the Earth Observation market, Brexit, different types of data and Playboy!

We’ve now completed three years of weekly blogs, and the views on our website have grown steadily. This year has seen a significant increase in viewed pages, which is something we’re delighted to see.

We like our blog to be of interest to our colleagues in remote sensing and Earth observation, although we also touch on issues of interest to the wide space, and small business, communities.

At Pixalytics we believe strongly in education and training in both science and remote sensing, together with supporting early career scientists. As such we have a number of students and scientists working with us during the year, and we always like them to write a blog. Something they’re not always keen on at the start! This year we’ve had pieces on:

Writing a blog each week can be hard work, as Wednesday mornings always seem to come around very quickly. However, we think this work adds value to our business and makes a small contribution to explaining the industry in which we work.

Thanks for reading this year, and we hope we can catch your interest again next year.

We’d like to wish everyone a Happy New Year, and a very successful 2017!

Remote Sensing: Learning, Learned & Rewritten

Image of Yemen acquired by Sentinel-2 in August 2015. Data courtesy of ESA.

Image of Yemen acquired by Sentinel-2 in August 2015. Data courtesy of ESA.

This blog post is about what I did and what thoughts came to mind on my three-month long ERASMUS+ internship at Pixalytics which began in July and ends this week.

During my first week at Pixalytics, after being introduced to the Plymouth Science Park buildings and the office, my first task was to get a basic understanding of what remote sensing is actually about. With the help of Sam and Andy’s book, Practical Handbook of Remote Sensing, that was pretty straightforward.

As the words suggest, remote sensing is the acquisition of data and information on an object without the need of being on the site. It is then possible to perform a variety of analysis and processing on this data to better understand and study physical, chemical and biological phenomena that affect the environment.

Examples of programming languages: C, Python & IDL

Examples of programming languages: C, Python & IDL

I soon realized that quite a lot of programming was involved in the analysis of satellite data. In my point of view, though, some of the scripts, written in IDL (Interactive Data Language), were not as fast and efficient as they could be, sometimes not at all. With that in mind, I decided to rewrite one of the scripts, turning it into a C program. This allowed me to get a deeper understanding of satellite datasets formats (e.g. HDF, Hierarchical Data Format) and improve my overall knowledge of remote sensing.

While IDL, a historic highly scientific language for remote sensing, provides a quick way of writing code, it has a number of glaring downsides. Poor memory management and complete lack of strictness often lead to scripts that will easily break. Also, it’s quite easy to write not-so-pretty and confusing spaghetti code, i.e., twisted and tangled code.

Writing C code, on the other hand, can get overly complicated and tedious for some tasks that would require just a few lines in IDL. While it gives the programmer almost full control of what’s going on, some times it’s just not worth the time and effort.

Instead, I chose to rewrite the scripts in Python which I found to be quite a good compromise. Indentation can sometimes be a bit annoying, and coming from other languages the syntax might seem unusual, but its great community and the large availability of modules to achieve your goals in just a few lines really make up for it.

It was soon time to switch to a bigger and more complex task, which has been, to this day, what I would call my “main task” during my time at Pixalytics: building an automated online processing website. The website aspect was relatively easy with a combination of the usual HTML, Javascript, PHP and CSS, it was rewriting and integrated the remote sensing scripts that was difficult. Finally all of those little, and sometimes not quite so little, scripts and programs were available from a convenient web interface, bringing much satisfaction and pride for all those hours of heavy thinking and brainstorming. Hopefully, you will read more about this development in the future from Pixalytics, as it will form the back-end of their product suite to be launched in the near future.

During my internship there was also time for events inside the Science Park such as the Hog Roast, and events outside as well when I participated at the South-West England QGIS User Group meeting in Dartmoor National Park. While it is not exactly about remote sensing, but more on the Geographic Information System (GIS) topic it made me realize how much I had learned on remote sensing in my short time at Pixalytics, I was able to exchange my opinions and points of view with other people that were keen on the subject.

A side project I’ve been working on in my final weeks was looking at the world to find stunning, interesting (and possibly both) places on Earth to make postcards from – such as one at the top of the blog. At times, programming and scientific research reads can get challenging and/or frustrating, and it’s so relaxing to just look at and enjoy the beauty of our planet.

It is something that anyone can do as it takes little knowledge about remote sensing. Free satellite imagery is available through a variety of sources; what I found to be quite easy to access and use was imagery from USGS/NASA Landsat-8 and ESA Sentinel-2. It is definitely something I would recommend.

Finally, I want to say “thank you” to Sam and Andy, without whom I would have never had the opportunity to get the most out of this experience, in a field in which I’ve always been interested into, but had never had the chance to actually get my hands on.

Blog written by Davide Mainas on an ERASMUS+ internship with Pixalytics via the Tellus Group.

Gathering of the UK Remote Sensing Clans

RSPSOC

The Remote Sensing & Photogrammetry Society (RSPSoc) 2016 Annual Conference is taking place this week, hosted by the University of Nottingham and the British Geological Society. Two Pixalytics staff, Dr Sam Lavender and Dr Louisa Reynolds, left Plymouth on a cold wet day on Monday, and arrived in the Nottinghamshire sunshine as befits RSPSoc week. The conference runs for three days and gives an opportunity to hear about new developments and research within remote sensing. Both Sam and Louisa are giving presentations this year.

Tuesday morning began with the opening keynote presentation given by Stephen Coulson of the European Space Agency (ESA), which discussed their comprehensive programme including the Copernicus and Earth Explorer missions. The Copernicus missions are generating ten times more data than similar previous missions, which presents logistical, processing and storage challenges for users. The future vision is to bring the user to the data, rather than the other way around. However, the benefits of cloud computing are still to be fully understood and ESA are interested in hearing about applications that couldn’t be produced with the IT technology we had 5 years ago.

After coffee Sam chaired the commercial session titled ‘The challenges (and rewards) of converting scientific research into commercial products.’ It started with three short viewpoint presentations from Jonathan Shears (Telespazio VEGA UK), Dr Sarah Johnson (University of Leicester) and Mark Jarman (Satellite Applications Catapult), and then moved into an interactive debate. It was great to see good attendance and a lively discussion ensued. Sam is planning to produce a white paper, with colleagues, based on the session. Some of the key points included:

  • Informative websites so people know what you do
  • Working with enthusiastic individuals as they will make sure something happens, and
  • To have a strong commercial business case alongside technical feasibility.
Dr Louisa Reynolds, Pixalytics Ltd, giving a presentation at RSPSoc 2016

Dr Louisa Reynolds, Pixalytics Ltd, giving a presentation at RSPSoc 2016

Louisa presented on Tuesday afternoon within the Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction session. Her presentation was ‘A semi-automated flood mapping procedure using statistical SAR backscatter analysis’ which summarised the work Pixalytics has been doing over the last year on flood mapping which was funded by the Space for Smarter Government Programme (SSGP). Louisa was the third presenter who showed Sentinel-1 flood maps of York, and so it was a popular topic!

Alongside Louisa’s presentation, there have some fascinating other talks on topics as varied as:

  • Detecting and monitoring artisanal oil refining in the Niger Delta
  • Night time lidar reading of long-eroded gravestones
  • Photogrammatic maps of ancient water management features in Al-Jufra, Libya.
  • Seismic risk in Crete; and
  • Activities of Map Action

Although for Louisa her favourite part so far was watching a video of the launch of Sentinel 1A, through the Soyuz VS07 rocket’s discarding and deployment stages, simultaneously filmed from the craft and from the ground.

Just so you don’t think the whole event is about remote sensing, the conference also has a thriving social scene. On Monday there was a tour of The City Ground, legendary home of Nottingham Forest, by John McGovern who captained Forest to successive European Cup’s in 1979 and 1980. It was a great event and it was fascinating to hear about the irascible leadership style of Brian Clough. Tuesday’s event was a tour round the spooky Galleries of Justice Museum.

The society’s Annual General Meeting takes place on Wednesday morning; Sam’s presentation, ‘Monitoring Land Cover Dynamics: Bringing together Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 data’, is in the Land Use/Land Cover Mapping session which follows.

The start of RSPSoc has been great as usual, offering chances to catch up with old remote sensing friends and meet some new ones. We are looking forward to rest of the conference and 2017!

Earth observation satellites in space in 2016

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972. Image Credit: NASA

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972.
Image Credit: NASA

Earth Observation (EO) satellites account for just over one quarter of all the operational satellites currently orbiting the Earth. As noted last week there are 1 419 operational satellites, and 374 of these have a main purpose of either EO or Earth Science.

What do Earth observation satellites do?
According to the information within the Union of Concerned Scientists database, the main purpose of the current operational EO satellites are:

  • Optical imaging for 165 satellites
  • Radar imaging for 34 satellites
  • Infrared imaging for 7 satellites
  • Meteorology for 37 satellites
  • Earth Science for 53 satellites
  • Electronic Intelligence for 47 satellites
  • 6 satellites with other purposes; and
  • 25 satellites simply list EO as their purpose

Who Controls Earth observation satellites?
There are 34 countries listed as being the main controllers of EO satellites, although there are also a number of joint and multinational satellites – such as those controlled by the European Space Agency (ESA). The USA is the leading country, singularly controlling one third of all EO satellites – plus they are joint controllers in others. Of course, the data from some of these satellites are widely shared across the world, such as Landsat, MODIS and SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) missions.

The USA is followed by China with about 20%, and Japan and Russia come next with around 5% each. The UK is only listed as controller on 4 satellites all related to the DMC constellation, although we are also involved in the ESA satellites.

Who uses the EO satellites?
Of the 374 operational EO satellites, the main users are:

  • Government users with 164 satellites (44%)
  • Military users with 112 satellites (30%)
  • Commercial users with 80 satellites (21%)
  • Civil users with 18 satellites (5%)

It should be noted that some of these satellites do have multiple users.

Height and Orbits of Earth observation satellites
In terms of operational EO satellite altitudes:

  • 88% are in a Low Earth Orbit, which generally refers to altitudes of between 160 and 2 000 kilometres (99 and 1 200 miles)
  • 10% are in a geostationary circular orbit at around 35 5000 kilometres (22 200 miles)
  • The remaining 2% are described as having an elliptical orbit.

In terms of the types of orbits:

  • 218 are in a sun-synchronous orbit
  • 84 in non-polar inclined orbit
  • 16 in a polar orbit
  • 17 in other orbits including elliptical, equatorial and molniya orbit; and finally
  • 39 do not have an orbit recorded.

What next?

Our first blog of 2016 noted that this was going to be an exciting year for EO, and it is proving to be the case. We’ve already seen the launches of Sentinel-1B, Sentinel-3A, Jason-3, GaoFen3 carrying a SAR instrument and further CubeSat’s as part of Planet’s Flock imaging constellation.

The rest of the year looks equally exciting with planned launches for Sentinel-2B, Japan’s Himawari 9, India’s INsat-3DR, DigitalGlobe’s Worldview 4 and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series Program (GOES-R). We can’t wait to see all of this data in action!

Spinning Python in Green Spaces

2016 map of green spaces in Plymouth, using Sentinel-2 data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA.

2016 map of green spaces in Plymouth, using Sentinel-2 data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA.

As students, we are forever encouraged to find work experience to develop our real-life skills and enhance our CV’s. During the early period of my second year I was thinking about possible work experience for the following summer. Thanks to my University department, I was able to find the Space Placements in INdustry (SPIN) scheme. SPIN has been running for 4 years now, advertising short summer placements at host companies. These provide a basis for which students with degrees involving maths/physics/computer science can get an insight into the thriving space sector. I chose to apply to Pixalytics, and three months later they accepted my application in late March.

Fast forward a few more months and I was on the familiar train down to Plymouth in my home county of Devon. Regardless of your origin, living in a new place never fails to confuse, but with perseverance, I managed to settle in quickly. In the same way I could associate my own knowledge from my degree (such as atmospheric physics, and statistics) to the subject of remote sensing, a topic which I had not previously learnt about. Within a few days I was at work on my own projects learning more on the way.

My first task was an informal investigation into Open data that Plymouth City Council (PCC) has recently uploaded onto the web. PCC are looking for ways to create and support innovative business ideas that could potentially use open data. Given their background, Pixalytics could see the potential in developing this. I used the PCC’s green space, nature reserve and neighbourhood open data sets and found a way to calculate areas of green space in Plymouth using Landsat/Sentinel 2 satellite data to provide a comparison.

Sentinel-2 Image of Plymouth from 2016. Data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA.

Sentinel-2 Image of Plymouth from 2016. Data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA.

There were a few challenges to overcome in using the multiple PCC data sets as they had different coordinate reference systems, which needed to be consistent to be used in GIS software. For example, the Nature Reserves data set was partly in WGS84 and partly in OSGB 1936. Green space is in WGS 84 and the neighbourhood boundaries are in OSGB 1936. This meant that after importing these data sets in GIS software, they wouldn’t line up. Also, the green space data set didn’t include landmarks such as the disused Plymouth City airport, and large areas around Derriford Hospital and Ernsettle. Using GIS software I then went on to find a way to classify and calculate areas of green space within the Plymouth city boundary. The Sentinel-2 which can be seen above, has a higher spatial resolution and allowed me to include front and back gardens.

My green space map for 2016 created from Sentinel 2 data is the most accurate, and gives a total area of green space within the Plymouth neighbourhood boundary of 43 square kilometres, compared with 28 square kilometres that PCC have designated within their dataset. There are some obvious explainable differences, but it would be interesting to explore this deeper.

My second project was to write computer code for the processing and mosaicking of Landsat Imagery. Pixalytics is developing products where the user can select an area of interest from a global map, and these can cause difficult if the area crosses multiple images. My work was to make these images as continuous as possible, accounting for the differences in radiances.

I ended up developing a Python package, some of whose functions include obtaining the WRS path and row from an inputted Latitude and Longitude, correcting for the difference in radiances, and clipping and merging multiple images. There is also code that helps reduce the visual impact of clouds on individual images by using the quality band of the Landsat 8 product. This project took up most of my time, however I don’t think readers would appreciate, yet alone read a 500 line python script, so this has been left out.

I’d like to take this opportunity to thank Andrew and Samantha for giving me an insight into this niche, and potentially lucrative area of science as it has given me some direction and motivation for the last year of my degree. I hope I’ve provided some useful input to Pixalytics (even if it is just giving Samantha a very long winded Python lesson), because they certainly have done with me!

 

Blog written by:
Miles Lemmer, SPIN Summer Placement student.
BSc. Environmental Physics, University of Reading.

History Comes Around

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972. Image Credit: NASA

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972.
Image Credit: NASA

Remote sensing is a relatively young industry, but it doesn’t mean we don’t have history. We do. We shouldn’t it, and were reminded why this week as we bounced back through time.

We noticed an introductory tweet yesterday from the Earth Resources Observation and Science Centre (EROS) History Project established by the US Geological Survey. This project has created an amazing online archive of information about its involvement in remote sensing that contains documents, and videos, from 1960s/70s to the current day. A few of the archive items that caught our attention were:

News Release from United States Department of the Interior on the 21st September 1966 with the title ‘Earths Resources To Be Studied From Space’. What struck us was how the phrases could be from today.

  • ‘gathering facts about the natural resources of earth’
  • ‘the time is now right and urgent to apply space technology towards the solution of many pressing natural resources problems being compound by population and industrial growth’
  • ‘An opportunity to collect valuable resource data and use it to improve the quality of our environment’

Equally, the sessions from 1973 Management & Utilization of Remote Sensing Data Symposium, organized by the American Society of Photogrammetry, could easily be describing a current conference:

  • Role of Remote Sensing in Resource Management & Planning
  • Hydrological and Environmental Applications
  • Future Sensor and Information Handling Systems
  • Agricultural and Forestry Applications

We loved the 1980 User Frustrations with Landsat, which noted data quality issues like:

  • Desert scenes have no contrast
  • There’s no underwater detail in the image
  • The image is striped!

A reminder in the news release from 15 March 1989 on how close the world came to losing the Landsat archive. This release rescinded the order, made two weeks earlier, to shutdown Landsat 4 & 5 and to provide funding until a policy review of Landsat could be completed.

The archive is a wealth of interesting details about the history of US remote sensing, including the amount of data collected over the years to the more mundane, but no less fascinating, descriptions of the furniture required to set up EROS in the first instance! We’d highly recommend you have a look at this archive – although be warned, I lost a few hours in there whilst writing this blog!!

This week is also a big anniversary for Landsat-1 which was launched on the 23rd July 1972, and the first satellite image from it was received on the 26th July 1972 beginning the 44 year archive. It’s also the Landsat Science Team’s 2016 Summer meeting this week in South Dakota, and amongst the topics of discussion are future sensor capabilities for Landsat 10 – showing not much has changed from 1973!

Although remembering the past is important, it’s vital that we also look forward to the future. At the Landsat Science Team meeting, it was noted the target launch date for Landsat 9 is the 15th December 2020, and as discussed above they are already talking about Landsat 10!

Living Planet Is Really Buzzing!

Living planet rotating global in the exhibition area, photo: S Lavender

Living planet rotating global in the exhibition area, photo: S Lavender

This week I’m at the 2016 European Space Agency’s Living Planet Symposium taking place in sunny Prague. I didn’t arrive until lunchtime on Monday and with the event already underway I hurried to the venue. First port of call was the European Association of Remote Sensing Companies (EARSC) stand as we’ve got copies of flyers and leaflets on their stand. Why not pop along and have look!

The current excitement and interest in Earth observation (EO) was obvious when I made my way towards the final sessions of the day. The Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 synergy presentations were packed out, all seats taken and people were crowding the door to watch!

I started with the Thematic Exploitation Platforms session. For a long time the remote sensing community has wanted more data, and now we’re receiving it in ever larger quantities e.g., the current Copernicus missions are generating terabytes of data daily. With the storage requirements this generates there is a lot of interest in the use of online platforms to hold data, and then you upload your code to it, or use tools provided by the platform, rather than everyone trying to download their own individual copies. It was interesting to compare and contrast the approaches taken with hydrology, polar, coastal, forestry and urban EO data.

Tuesday was always going to be my busiest day of the Symposium as I was chairing two sessions and giving a presentation. I had an early start as the 0800 session on Coastal Zones I was co-chairing alongside Bob Brewin –a former PhD student of mine! It was great to see people presenting their results using Sentinel-2. The spatial resolution, 10m for the highest resolution wavebands, allows us to see the detail of suspended sediment resuspension events and the 705 nm waveband can be used for phytoplankton; but we’d still like an ocean colour sensor at this spatial resolution!

In the afternoon I headed into European Climate Data Records, where there was an interesting presentation on a long time-series AVHRR above-land aerosol dataset where the AVHRR data is being vicariously calibrated using the SeaWiFS ocean colour sensor. Great to see innovation within the industry where sensors launched one set of applications can be reused in others. One thing that was emphasised by presenters in both this session, and the Coastal Zone one earlier, was the need to reprocess datasets to create improved data records.

My last session of the day was on Virtual Research, where I was both co-chairing and presenting. It returned to the theme of handling large datasets, and the presentations focused on building resources that make using EO data easier. This ranged from bringing in-situ and EO data together by standardising the formatting and metadata of the in-situ data, through community datasets for algorithm performance evaluation, to data cubes that bring all the data needed to answer specific questions together into a three- (or higher) dimensional array that means you don’t spend all your time trying to read different datasets versus ask questions of them. My own presentation focused on our involvement with the ESA funded E-Collaboration for Earth Observation (E-CEO) project, which developed a collaborative platform  where challenges can be initiated and evaluated; allowing participants to upload their code and have it evaluated against a range of metrics. We’d run an example challenge focused on the comparison of atmospheric correction processors for ocean colour data that, once setup, could easily be rerun.

I’ve already realised that there too many interesting parallel sessions here, as I missed the ocean colour presentations which I’ve heard were great. The good news for me is that these sessions were recorded. So if you haven’t be able to make to Prague in person, or like me you are here but haven’t seen everything you wanted there are going to be selection of sessions to view on ESA’s site, for example, you can see the opening session here.

Not only do events like this gives you to a fantastic chance learn about what’s happening across the EO community, but they also give you the opportunity to catch up with old friends. I am looking forward to the rest of the week!