UKSEDS National Student Space Conference 2017

The 2017 UKSEDS National Student Space Conference took place last weekend at the University of Exeter and I was delighted to be asked to give a presentation.

UKSEDS, the acronym of the ‘UK Students for the Exploration and Development of Space’, is a charity dedicated to running events for space students and graduates. It is the UK branch of global community who have the aim of promoting space, space exploration and research.

The National Student Space Conference is in its 29th year, and 2017 was the first time I’d attended. I began the Saturday morning with a panel discussion on Exploration versus Exploitation with Dr David Parker from the European Space Agency, Cathrine Armour who leads the South West Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications and Andy Bacon from Thales Alenia Space UK.

One of the key points raised in the panel surrounded the topic’s title, and that it wasn’t a contest between exploration and exploitation, but rather that exploration is generally followed up with exploitation e.g. even in the 19th and 20th century explorations were politically motivated. However exploration is risky, and so it may be difficult to produce favourable outcomes that can be exploited.

Traditionally, commercial organisations were risk averse and therefore exploration has often been supported by public bodies. The exploitation came later from commercial organisations, but there’s now an increased appetite for risk through venture and crowd funding with space being a particular focus.

We also have hindsight of how we’ve altered planet Earth, and so need to apply this to space where we’ve completed our first survey of the solar system. Exploitation may not be far away as there are companies already aiming to mine asteroids, for example. So alongside investing in science and technology, we also need to invest in the governance to ensure that any future exploitation is undertaken responsibly.

Closer to Earth, it can be considered that we’ve not yet fully exploiting the potential of orbiting satellites. For example, we could use them for generating solar energy as a twenty four hour resource. So whilst exploration does tend to proceed exploitation, in fact it is probably more accurate to say we loop between the two with each providing feedback into the other.

My presentation session was between the coffee break and lunch. I was last up and followed Cathrine Armour, Matt Cosby from Goonhilly Earth Station Ltd and Dr Lucy Berthoud from the University of Bristol & Thales Alenia Space UK. My presentation was on “Innovations in Earth observation” and can be found here.

I particularly enjoyed Lucy’s talk where she posed the question – Is there life on Mars? She also had a crowd pleasing set of practical experiments involving dry ice and a rock from a local beach, which was a bit daunting to follow! Whilst Lucy concluded that Mars has the elements needed for life to exist in terms of nutrients, an energy source and liquid water, any life would likely to be microscopic.

However, there are large costs associated with us visiting Mars to confirm this. Ignoring the obvious cost of the flight, the decontamination aspect is huge. As mission planners have to avoid both forward and backward contamination, i.e., us contaminating Mars and the material brought back contaminating the Earth. This brings us back around to the morning panel and why exploration always tends to come first, supported by national or international bodies.

Overall, I had a great time at the Conference and would wholly recommend any students who have interest in space join UKSEDS. Membership is free and it can give you access to great events, opportunities and contacts. You can join here!

Have you read the top Pixalytics blogs of 2016?

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

As this is the final blog of the year we’d like to take a look back over the past fifty-two weeks and see which blog’s captured people’s attention, and conversely which did not!

It turns out that seven of the ten most widely viewed blogs of the last year weren’t even written in 2016. Four were written in 2015, and three were written in 2014! The other obvious trend is the interest in the number of satellites in space, which can be seen by the titles of six of the ten most widely read blogs:

We’ve also found these blogs quoted by a variety of other web pages, and the occasional report. It’s always interesting to see where we’re quoted!

The other most read blogs of the year were:

Whilst only three of 2016’s blogs made our top ten, this is partly understandable as they have less time to attract the interest of readers and Google. However, looking at most read blogs of 2016 shows an interest in the growth of the Earth Observation market, Brexit, different types of data and Playboy!

We’ve now completed three years of weekly blogs, and the views on our website have grown steadily. This year has seen a significant increase in viewed pages, which is something we’re delighted to see.

We like our blog to be of interest to our colleagues in remote sensing and Earth observation, although we also touch on issues of interest to the wide space, and small business, communities.

At Pixalytics we believe strongly in education and training in both science and remote sensing, together with supporting early career scientists. As such we have a number of students and scientists working with us during the year, and we always like them to write a blog. Something they’re not always keen on at the start! This year we’ve had pieces on:

Writing a blog each week can be hard work, as Wednesday mornings always seem to come around very quickly. However, we think this work adds value to our business and makes a small contribution to explaining the industry in which we work.

Thanks for reading this year, and we hope we can catch your interest again next year.

We’d like to wish everyone a Happy New Year, and a very successful 2017!

Small Satellites Step Forward

Artist's concept of one of the eight Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System satellites deployed in space above a hurricane. Image courtesy of NASA.

Artist’s concept of one of the eight Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System satellites deployed in space above a hurricane. Image courtesy of NASA.

We’re all about small satellites with this blog, after looking at the big beast that is GOES-R last week. Small satellites, microsatellites, cubesats or one of the other myriad of names they’re described as, have been in the news this month.

Before looking at what’s happening, we’re going to start with some definitions. Despite multiple terms being used interchangeably, they are different and are defined based around either their cubic size or their wet mass – ‘wet mass’ refers to the weight of the satellite including fuel, whereas dry mass is just the weight of satellite:

  • Small satellites (smallsats), also known as minisats, have a wet mass of between 100 and 500 kg.
  • Microsats generally have a wet mass of between 10 and 100 kg.
  • Nanosats have a wet mass of between 1 and 10 kg.
  • Cubesats are a class of nanosats that have a standard size. One Cubesat measures 10x10x10 cm, known as 1U, and has a wet mass of no more than 1.33 kg. However, it is possible to join multiple cubes together to form a larger single unit.
  • Picosats have a wet mass of between 0.1 and 1 kg
  • Femtosats have a wet mass of between 10 and 100 g

To give a comparison, GOES-R had a wet mass of 5 192 kg, a dry mass of 2 857 kg, and a size of 6.1 m x 5.6 m x 3.9 m.

Small satellites have made headlines for a number of reasons, and the first two came out of a NASA press briefing given by Michael Freilich, Director of NASA’s Earth science division on the 7th November. NASA is due to launch the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) on 12th December from Cape Canaveral. CYGNSS will be NASA’s first Earth Observation (EO) small satellite constellation. The mission will measure wind speeds over the oceans, which will be used to improve understanding, and forecasting, of hurricanes and storm surges.

The constellation will consist of eight small satellites in low Earth orbits, which will be focussed over the tropics rather than the whole planet. Successive satellites in the constellation will pass over the same area every twelve minutes, enabling an image of wind speed over the entire tropics every few hours.

Each satellite will carry a Delay Doppler Mapping Instrument (DDMI) which will receive signals from existing GPS satellites and the reflection of that same signal from the Earth. The scattered signal from the Earth will measure ocean roughness, from which wind speed can be derived. Each microsatellite will weigh around 29 kg and measure approximately 51 x 64 x 28 cm; on top of this will be solar panels with a span of 1.67 m.

The second interesting announcement as reported by Space News, was that NASA is planning to purchase EO data from other small satellite constellation providers, to assess the quality and usability of that data. They will be one-off purchases with no ongoing commitment, and will sit alongside data from existing NASA missions. However, it is difficult not to assume that a successful and cost effective trial could lead to ongoing purchases, which could replace future NASA missions.

It’s forecast that this initiative could be worth in the region of $25 million, and will surely interest the existing suppliers such as Planet or TerraBella; however, in the longer term it could also attract new players to the market.

Finally in non NASA small satellite news, there was joint announcement at the start of the month by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) that they’d agreed to create a joint satellite constellation for EO. No further detail is available at this stage.

Once again, this shows what a vibrant, changing and evolving industry we work in!

Earth observation: Launches Gone, Launches Due & Launches Planned

Artist's rendition of a satellite - 3dsculptor/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – 3dsculptor/123RF Stock Photo

September is a busy month for Earth observation satellites, and so here is a round-up of the month.

Launches Gone
The Indian Space Research Agency (ISRA) launched the INSAT-3DR weather satellite on September 8th into a geostationary orbit. It carries a multi-spectral imager capable of collecting data in six wavebands: visible, shortwave and midwave infrared, water vapour and two thermal bands. Taking an image every 26 minutes it will be used to monitor cloud patterns and storm systems, collecting data about outgoing longwave radiation, precipitation estimates, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), snow cover and wind speeds.

The second major launch took place on September 15th, from Europe’s Space Centre in French Guiana, when five new Earth observation satellites were put into orbit.

  • Four of these satellites, SkySats 4, 5, 6 & 7, were launched for the commercial company Terra Bella – which is owned by Google. It’s reported that they have informally named these satellites after the Star Wars characters: R2D2, Luke, C3PO and Leia! These small satellites provide 90 cm resolution for panchromatic images and 2 m for visible and near infrared wavebands. They also offer video acquired at 30 frames per second with a resolution of 1.1 m.
  • In addition, this launch brought a new country into the Earth Observation satellite owning family, as Peru launched PeruSAT-1 which will be operated by their military authorities. This satellite is in a 695 km sun-synchronous low Earth orbit and will provide imagery in the visible light wavebands with a 70 cm resolution. The data is expected to help study forest health, monitor illegal logging and gold mining, and provide support with natural disasters. However, the details of who can access to the data, the cost and how to access it are still to be made public.

Launches to Come
Last week we said DigitalGlobe’s WorldView-4 satellite was due to launch on the Friday. The problem of having a blog go live before an event means you can be wrong, and on this occasion we were! Friday’s launch was postponed for two days due to a leak during the propellant loading. Unfortunately, a wildfire then broke out near the Vandenburg Air Force base, and the launch had to be postponed a second time. It is hoped it will go ahead before the end of the month.

Following on from INSAT-3DR, ISRA is due to launch another four satellites in the last week of September including:

  • India’s ScatSat, a replacement for the Oceansat-2. Carrying OSCAT (OceanSat-2 Scanning Scatterometer) it will offer data related to weather forecasting, sea surface winds, cyclone prediction and tracking satellite. The data collected will be used by organisations globally including NASA, NOAA and EUMETSAT.
  • A second Earth observation satellite on the launch is Algeria’s first CubeSat – AlSat Nano. It was designed and built at the Surry Space Centre by Algerian Graduate students, as part of joint programme between the UK Space Agency and the Algerian Space Agency. It will carry a camera, magnetometer and will be testing an innovative solar cell which is one tenth of a millimetre thick.

Launches Being Planned
The next country to join the Earth Observation community could well be North Korea. It was reported this week that they had carried out a successful ground test of a new rocket engine which would give them the capacity to launch various satellites, including Earth Observation ones.

Airbus Defence and Space also announced plans this week for four Earth observation satellites to be launched in 2020 and 2021. These will provide very high resolution imagery and continuity for the existing two Pléiades satellites.

As we’ve previously discussed, the trend in launches continues apace for the Earth observation community.

Earth observation satellites in space in 2016

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972. Image Credit: NASA

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972.
Image Credit: NASA

Earth Observation (EO) satellites account for just over one quarter of all the operational satellites currently orbiting the Earth. As noted last week there are 1 419 operational satellites, and 374 of these have a main purpose of either EO or Earth Science.

What do Earth observation satellites do?
According to the information within the Union of Concerned Scientists database, the main purpose of the current operational EO satellites are:

  • Optical imaging for 165 satellites
  • Radar imaging for 34 satellites
  • Infrared imaging for 7 satellites
  • Meteorology for 37 satellites
  • Earth Science for 53 satellites
  • Electronic Intelligence for 47 satellites
  • 6 satellites with other purposes; and
  • 25 satellites simply list EO as their purpose

Who Controls Earth observation satellites?
There are 34 countries listed as being the main controllers of EO satellites, although there are also a number of joint and multinational satellites – such as those controlled by the European Space Agency (ESA). The USA is the leading country, singularly controlling one third of all EO satellites – plus they are joint controllers in others. Of course, the data from some of these satellites are widely shared across the world, such as Landsat, MODIS and SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) missions.

The USA is followed by China with about 20%, and Japan and Russia come next with around 5% each. The UK is only listed as controller on 4 satellites all related to the DMC constellation, although we are also involved in the ESA satellites.

Who uses the EO satellites?
Of the 374 operational EO satellites, the main users are:

  • Government users with 164 satellites (44%)
  • Military users with 112 satellites (30%)
  • Commercial users with 80 satellites (21%)
  • Civil users with 18 satellites (5%)

It should be noted that some of these satellites do have multiple users.

Height and Orbits of Earth observation satellites
In terms of operational EO satellite altitudes:

  • 88% are in a Low Earth Orbit, which generally refers to altitudes of between 160 and 2 000 kilometres (99 and 1 200 miles)
  • 10% are in a geostationary circular orbit at around 35 5000 kilometres (22 200 miles)
  • The remaining 2% are described as having an elliptical orbit.

In terms of the types of orbits:

  • 218 are in a sun-synchronous orbit
  • 84 in non-polar inclined orbit
  • 16 in a polar orbit
  • 17 in other orbits including elliptical, equatorial and molniya orbit; and finally
  • 39 do not have an orbit recorded.

What next?

Our first blog of 2016 noted that this was going to be an exciting year for EO, and it is proving to be the case. We’ve already seen the launches of Sentinel-1B, Sentinel-3A, Jason-3, GaoFen3 carrying a SAR instrument and further CubeSat’s as part of Planet’s Flock imaging constellation.

The rest of the year looks equally exciting with planned launches for Sentinel-2B, Japan’s Himawari 9, India’s INsat-3DR, DigitalGlobe’s Worldview 4 and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series Program (GOES-R). We can’t wait to see all of this data in action!

Remote Sensing and the DIKW Pyramid

DIKW PyramidSatellite remote sensing industry is evolving and anyone working in it needs to become familiar with the Data, information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW) pyramid as this is one map, albeit simplistic, of the industry’s and our current journey.

Historically, satellite data was either sold as the original image or with a small amount of processing undertaken. If anyone wanted to do anything beyond basic processing, they had to do it themselves. However, things are changing.

According to a recent Euroconsult report, at least 3,600 small satellites will be launched over the next decade. The United Nations Office on Outer Space Affairs only lists 7,370 objects that have ever been launched into space, of which only 4,197 are still in orbit. We’re increasing the number of objects orbiting the Earth by 85% by smallsats alone, larger satellites will add even more.

The volume, variety and speed of this data collected by these satellites will present a step change not only in the type of applications companies will be able to offer, but, crucially, also in customer expectations – more and more they will be looking for added value.

One way of considering this is through the DIKW pyramid, which can be seen at the top of the blog, it’s credited to American organisational theorist Russell Ackoff in 1989, building on the ideas of Milan Zeleny two years earlier.

A simple summary of the pyramid starts with the collection of data which means nothing in its own right, it is simply data. Information is derived from data by asking the who, what, where, when and how questions. Knowledge is information to which expert skills and experience have been added to create more value – which is more profitable in a business context. Finally, wisdom is understanding what actions to take based on the knowledge you’ve gained.

Applying this to satellite remote sensing for agriculture, one example might be: data is the satellite data/image of the field. Information is knowing when the image was taken leading to where in the growing cycle the crop was. Knowledge is applying scientific algorithms to know the soil moisture, how much nutrients are in the soil or how much vegetation is present in various parts of the field. Wisdom is knowing what nutrients and fertilizers to apply, based on the knowledge gained, to improve crop yields.

A lot of Earth observation products are at the data or information level, with a few at the knowledge level, and even fewer at the wisdom level. Customers more and more want wisdom products, and they aren’t that interested in what was required to create them. When you add to this the additional types of geospatial information, e.g., optical and radar used together alongside airborne and in-field ground based measurements, the variety of open datasets and the new science and technological breakthroughs, things are going to look very different, very quickly.

We’d accept that the DIKW isn’t a perfect tool, nor a perfect representation of our industry, but it is simple, indicative and worth thinking about. We wrote about our intention to create products in an earlier blog. We’re a long way from the wisdom sector, but are hoping to be firmly within the knowledge sector and collaborating to create wisdom. It’s not easy and some companies will find it harder to do than others, but is going to be the future. How are you preparing?

Monitoring ocean acidification from space

Enhanced pseudo-true colour composite of the United Kingdom showing coccolithophore blooms in light blue. Image acquired by MODIS-Aqua on 24th May 2016. Data courtesy of NASA.

Enhanced pseudo-true colour composite of the United Kingdom showing coccolithophore blooms in light blue. Image acquired by MODIS-Aqua on 24th May 2016. Data courtesy of NASA.

What is ocean acidification?
Since the industrial revolution the oceans have absorbed approximately 50% of the CO2 produced by human activities (The Royal Society, 2005). Scientists previously saw this oceanic absorption as advantageous, however ocean observations in recent decades have shown it has caused a profound change in the ocean chemistry – resulting in ocean acidification (OA); as CO2 dissolves into the oceans it forms carbonic acid, lowering the pH and moving the oceans into a more acidic state. According to the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ocean pH has already decreased by about 30% and some studies suggest that if no changes are made, by 2100, ocean pH will decrease by 150%.

Impacts of OA
It’s anticipated OA will impact many marine species. For example, it’s expected it will have a harmful effect on some calcifying species such as corals, oysters, crustaceans, and calcareous plankton e.g. coccolithophores.

OA can significantly reduce the ability of reef-building corals to produce their skeletons and can cause the dissolution of oyster’s and crustacean’s protective shells, making them more susceptible to predation and death. This in turn would affect the entire food web, the wider environment and would have many socio-economic impacts.

Calcifying phytoplankton, such as coccolithophores, are thought to be especially vulnerable to OA. They are the most abundant type of calcifying phytoplankton in the ocean, and are important for the global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and are the base of many marine food webs. It’s projected that OA may disrupt the formation and/or dissolution of coccolithophores, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) shells, impacting future populations. Thus, changes in their abundance due to OA could have far-reaching effects.

Unlike other phytoplankton, coccolithophores are highly effective light scatterers relative to their surroundings due to their production of highly reflective calcium carbonate plates. This allows them to be easily seen on satellite imagery. The figure at the top of this page shows multiple coccolithophore blooms, in light blue, off the coast of the United Kingdom on 24th March 2016.

Current OA monitoring methods
Presently, the monitoring of OA and its effects are predominantly carried out by in situ observations from ships and moorings using buoys and wave gliders for example. Although vital, in situ data is notoriously spatially sparse as it is difficult to take measurements in certain areas of the world, especially in hostile regions (e.g. Polar Oceans). On their own they do not provide a comprehensive and cost-effective way to monitor OA globally. Consequently, this has driven the development of satellite-based sensors.

How can OA be monitored from space?
Although it is difficult to directly monitor changes in ocean pH using remote sensing, satellites can measure sea surface temperature and salinity (SST & SSS) and surface chlorophyll-a, from which ocean pH can be estimated using empirical relationships derived from in situ data. Although surface measurements may not be representative of deeper biological processes, surface observations are important for OA because the change in pH occurs at the surface first.

In 2015 researchers at the University of Exeter, UK became the first scientists to use remote sensing to develop a worldwide map of the ocean’s acidity using satellite imagery from the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that was launched in 2009 and NASA’s Aquarius satellite that was launched in 2011; both are still currently in operation. Thermal mounted sensors on the satellites measure the SST while the microwave sensors measure SSS; there are also microwave SST sensors, but they have a coarse spatial resolution.

Future Opportunities – The Copernicus Program
The European Union’s Copernicus Programme is in the process of launching a series of satellites, known as Sentinel satellites, which will improve understanding of large scale global dynamics and climate change. Of all the Sentinel satellite types, Sentinels 2 and 3 are most appropriate for assessment of the marine carbonate system. The Sentinel-3 satellite was launched in February this year andwill be mainly focussing on ocean measurements, including SST, ocean colour and chlorophyll-a.

Overall, OA is a relatively new field of research, with most of the studies being conducted over the last decade. It’s certain that remote sensing will have an exciting and important role to play in the future monitoring of this issue and its effects on the marine environment.

Blog written by Charlie Leaman, BSc, University of Bath during work placement at Pixalytics.

Is the remote sensing market an urban legend?

Yeti footprints

Yeti footprints on ice – erectus/123RF Stock Photo

The remote sensing/Earth observation (EO) market is like the Yeti or the Loch Ness Monster – there are plenty of people out there who tell you it exists, but very few companies have seen it with their own eyes!

We work in a fast growing and expanding industry, at least according to the myriad of reports that regularly drop into our inboxes. For example, over the last few weeks we’ve had press releases such as :-

With all this growth everything in the remote sensing/EO industry is fantastic, right? Well, no actually! Despite the report announcements, lots of companies within the industry are struggling to locate this valuable market.

Historically, a lot of funding was provided by governments and space agencies in the form of grants or tenders to promote the use, and uptake, of EO data, which enabled companies to develop and grow. Whilst such sources of funding are still available; the maturing of the industry coupled with the global economic slowdown is starting to constrict this revenue stream, forcing more and more EO companies out in the commercial world looking for the fabled billion dollar market. This development is currently being supported by venture capital as the growth forecasts are encouraging investment, but how many of these companies will be able to transition into profit making businesses?

The Holy Grail for everyone is a reliable, consistent and expanding market for EO products and services, something that few businesses in our sector have successfully found. There are a variety of reasons why the market feels like an urban legend, including:

  • Lack of knowledge on the products wanted leading to supplier led, rather than consumer led, product development.
  • Lack of an existing market meaning that EO companies need to work hard on advertising to tell possible customers they exist and the benefits they can offer.
  • Monopolistic behaviour of governments/space agencies. These bodies have spent large sums to launch satellites and need to demonstrate value for money. For example, the European Commission’s Copernicus Programme recently announced its intention to develop agriculture products from Sentinel data. Rather than developing the market, this could potentially destroy the market for existing EO companies.

It’s clear that to get proof of a remote sensing/EO market, companies need to develop value for money products that customers want, demonstrate the benefits of satellite data as an information source and stand out from the other legend hunters!

Here at Pixalytics we’re in the process of packing our data, securing our satellite links and checking our geo-referenced maps, ready to set out onto our journey in search of the fabled market. To date, our businesses has focussed on bespoke specialised products for individual customers and now we’re also hoping to develop more standard products that can be processed on demand, or made available from a pre-processed archive.

Of course we don’t have all the answers of where to find the customers, what the right products are or the best way of making letting people know we exist and we can help them. Although having seen the cost of these industry reports, we’re starting to think that writing, and selling, remote sensing/EO market reports is where the real money is!

Over the next few months, we’ll use this blog to tell you about our journey, the mistakes we make and what we learn. As we get a glimpses into the market we’ll put it up here, although it might be grainy and indistinguishable – but then aren’t all urban legend pictures!

Is This The Worst Global Coral Bleaching Event Ever?

Great Barrier Reef off the east coast of Australia where currents swirl in the water around corals. Image acquired by Landsat-8 on 23 August 2013. Image Courtesy of USGS/ESA.

Great Barrier Reef off the east coast of Australia where currents swirl in the water around corals. Image acquired by Landsat-8 on 23 August 2013. Image Courtesy of USGS/ESA.

It was announced last week that 93% of the Great Barrier Reef has been hit by coral bleaching due to rising sea temperatures from El Niño and climate change. We first wrote about the third worldwide coral bleaching in October 2015, noting this year’s event could be bad. Those fears would appear to be coming true with the results of Australia’s National Coral Bleaching Task Force aerial survey of 911 coral reefs which found 93% had suffered from bleaching; of which 55% had suffered severe bleaching.

Coral bleaching occurs when water stresses cause coral to expel the photosynthetic algae, which give coral their colours, exposing the skeleton and turning them white. The stress is mostly due to higher seawater temperatures; although cold water stresses, run-off, pollution and high solar irradiance can also cause bleaching.

Bleaching does not kill coral immediately, but puts them at a greater risk of mortality. Recovery is also possible if the water stress reduces and normal conditions return, which is what is hoped for in the Northern Sector of the reef above Port Douglas, where around 81% of corals had suffered severe bleaching – the water quality in this area is good, which should also aid recovery. The reefs fared better further south. Within the Central Sector, between Port Douglas and Mackay, 75 of the 226 reefs suffered from severe bleaching. Whilst in the Southern Sector below MacKay only 2 reefs suffered severe bleaching and 25% had no bleaching.

The news is not all bad. A survey of the coral reefs of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a territory of India that marks the dividing line between the Bay of Bengal & Andaman Sea, also published this week shows no evidence of coral bleaching. This survey is interesting for remote sensors as it was undertaken by a remotely operated vehicle, PROVe, developed by India’s National Institute of Ocean Technology. As well as mapping the coral reefs, PROVe has a radiometer attached and is measuring the spectral signatures of the coral in the area, which could be used to support the monitoring of corals from satellites.

Monitoring coral bleaching from space has been done before. For example, Envisat’s MERIS sensor was determined to be able to detect coral bleaching down to a depth of ten metres, or the Coral Bleaching Index (Ziskin et al, 2011) which uses the red, green and blue bands to measure increases in spectral reflectance in bleached corals. Given the size, geographical area and oceanic nature of corals, satellite remote sensing should be able to offer valuable support to the monitoring of their health.

Following the second global bleaching event, in 1997/98, research confirmed that 16 percent of the world’s coral died. Who knows what the outcome of the current event will be?

Want to know the top ten Pixalytics blogs of the year?

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Have you read all of our 2015 blogs? Did you miss a few weeks for a holiday? Whatever your answers, it turns out you may not have seen our most widely read blog last year.

As this is the final blog of the year we like to take a look back over the past fifty-two weeks and see which blog’s captured people’s attention, and conversely which did not!

So what have we discovered? Well, five of the top six most read blogs of 2015 were not actually written in 2015, but in 2014! This is a really positive thing for us, as it means our writing has a currency beyond the week/month/year in which it was written. The most widely read blogs in 2015, written in 2014, were in order:

  • How many Earth observation satellites are in space?
  • What do colours mean in satellite imagery?
  • How many satellites are orbiting the Earth?
  • Why understanding spatial resolution is important?
  • Remote sensing big data: possibilities and dangers

The remainder of the top ten were written in 2015, and in order were:

  • How many satellites are orbiting the Earth in 2015?
  • Mastering Landsat images in 5 simple steps!
  • Why counting animals from spaces isn’t as hard as you think?
  • Five Landsat quirks you should know
  • How many Earth observation satellites in orbit in 2015?

The eagled eyed amongst you will have noticed an interesting overlap between the two lists, namely the obvious interest in the number of satellites, and Earth observation satellites, orbiting the planet. I have a strong feeling a 2016 update will occur sometime next year!

We know counting the number of views of the blogs doesn’t give a true picture, as blogs issued earlier in the year are likely to have been read more than later ones. Therefore I’d like to give an honourable mention to three blogs written in November and December that still made it into the top 20, despite their limited time. These were:

  • Pixalytics is growing!
  • Practical Handbook of Remote Sensing
  • Sentinel-2 data released into the wild

This is our second year of weekly blog writing, and it has got a bit easier. We try wherever possible to have the blog written by Tuesday night, so it is ready to go out the next day. This has eliminated a lot of the pressure we had last year; arriving at the office on a Wednesday morning knowing we had a blog to issue in two hours and nothing written!

One thing we do ask ourselves each year, is whether all of this effort is worth it? I know if you read all the social media experts they will tell you it is vital to write a blog, but we think about whether our blog adds value to our business?

The answers this year came from:

  • Geo-Business 2015 and the 2015 UK Space Conference – We exhibited at both of these conferences and had a significant number of people come up to our stand and tell us that they read, and enjoyed our blog, which was great to hear.
  • Catalin, our new Erasmus student – If you read last week’s blog you’ll know that Catalin found Pixalytics by seeing a blog written by our summer Erasmus student, Selin.
  • Expert Authority – We know potential clients read our blog before developing a relationship with us, and it gives them a level of confidence in terms of Pixalytics being a company who knows its field and are up to date with what is happening.

We think the blog does add value to our business, and we intend to carry on next year.

We’d like to wish everyone a Happy New Year, and a very successful 2016!

Thanks for reading.