Next Satellites Twins Ready For Launch

Illustration of the twin spacecraft of the NASA/German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission. Image courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech.

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) twin satellite mission is scheduled for launch on Monday, 21st May, from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. It will be aboard the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, alongside a number of commercial satellites.

As its name suggests, GRACE-FO is a follow on to the original GRACE mission which was launched in 2002 and reached end of life in November 2017. Both missions use innovative microwave measurement techniques to map deviations in the Earth’s gravity fields, which in turn enable changes in the oceans, ice sheets and land masses to be monitored. Both the original, and follow on, are joint missions between NASA and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ).

Each of GRACE-FO’s identical satellites weigh around 600 kg and measure approximately 3 m x 2 m x 0.8 m. They’ll be launched into low Earth circular polar orbits at around 490 km altitude, separated by between 170 and 270 km and to maintain this distance will require regular orbital moves during the mission life.

The essence of the mission is to constantly measure how far apart the two satellites are by sending microwave signals between them. This distance changes under the influence of the Earth’s gravity, by pulling the lead satellite away from its partner. Precisely measuring this, makes it possible map the changes in the Earth’s gravitation field. These changes are caused by the movements in water, ice and earth, and some examples with the GRACE datasets include:

  • Loss of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland
  • Seasonal changes in the Amazon basic
  • Loss of groundwater in California.

The key instruments on board GRACE-FO include:

  • Microwave Instrument (MWI): this sends K and Ka band microwave signals between the two satellites to precisely measure their distance apart. Its reported that they are accurate to one micron – the diameter of a blood vessel!
  • Laser ranging interferometer (LRI): This experimental instrument is an addition to the original GRACE mission and makes the same measurement as the MWI, but using lasers instead. It’s estimated that this could improve accuracy by at least a factor of 10.
  • Accelerometer: Measures the factors other than gravity affecting the satellite orbits.
  • GPS Receivers: Determine the exact position over the Earth to within a centimetre.

GRACE-FO will operate on a decaying orbit and so will not have constant repeating ground-track, but it should map the globe every thirty days. In addition, it will produce hundreds of daily profiles of temperature and water vapour.

GRACE produced some fascinating insights during its fifteen year mission; it had been hoped that the two missions would be in space together to allow for calibration between them, but this was not possible. Scientists are itching to get new data from GRACE-FO following the six month gap and it’s hoped that the new pair will provide further insights into how the world’s climate is changing, the loss of the ice sheets and monitoring how much water we’re currently using – all of which could have major impacts on our future!

Is China Becoming the Worlds Earth Observation Power?

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Whilst Europe’s Earth Observation (EO) community was focussed on the successful launch of Sentinel-3B last week, you may have missed that it was also an exciting few days for the Chinese EO and space sectors.

On Thursday 26th April at 4.42 (GMT) China launched five EO satellites using the Long March 11 rocket at 4.42pm (GMT) from a mobile platform at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the Gobi Desert.

The five small Zhuhai-1 remote sensing satellites were put into sun-synchronous orbits. Four of these satellites are reported to be carrying China’s first commercial hyperspectral cameras, with a spatial resolution of 10 metres. The fifth satellite carried a video camera with a spatial resolution of 90 centimetres, operating with a swath width of 22.5 km.

All of these satellites are owned by the Zhuhai Orbita Aerospace Science and Technology Co Ltd. The company plans to establish a constellation of 34 video, hyperspectral and other satellites to provide data for agriculture, land and water resources, environmental protection, geologic monitoring and transport. The next five satellites in the constellation are expected to be launched later this year.

Also last week, the 24th April was China’s third national Space Day with a theme of forging a new era of space development. As part of the event the first China Aerospace Conference was held in Harbin in China’s Heilongjiang Province, with reportedly over 2,000 people gathering to discuss space technology and introduce China’s latest space programs.

There were some interesting announcements coming out of the Conference, including:

  • Northern Chinese province of Shaanxi released a plan to create a 72 strong Cubesat constellation to provide rapid data for land surveying, environmental monitoring, disaster warnings, agriculture, forestry, and water conservation in Shaanxi. It hopes to launch the first two prototypes next June.
  • Queqiao was announced as the name of the satellite that will carry the Chang’e-4 lunar probe into a halo orbit of the moon. Queqiao, named after a magpie bridge from a Chinese folktale, will be launched in late May 2018 and the probe hopes to will be sent down to the surface around six months later. If successful, it will be the first exploration of the dark side of the moon.
  • China also announced plans to send a group of new satellites into orbit around 2020, including:
    • Water Cycle Observation Mission (WCOM) : Will simultaneously measure key parameters such as soil moisture, ocean salinity, and ocean surface evaporation.
    • Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE): Joint mission with Europe to focus on the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth magnetosphere.
    • Einstein-Probe will search for celestial bodies that emit X-rays during fierce changes.
    • Advanced Space-borne Solar Observatory (ASO-S) to monitor magnetic fields, flares, and coronal mass ejections.
    • Gravitational Wave Electromagnetic Counterpart All-sky Monitor (GECAM) will search for electromagnetic signals associated with gravitational waves.
  • Launch of Gaofen-5 satellite is scheduled for 2nd May, from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre. This is part of the China High-resolution Earth Observation System (CHEOS) which includes multi-spectrum imaging and synthetic aperture radar satellites. Gaofen-5 is reported to have six instruments including a visible and short-wave infra hyper-spectral camera, spectral imager, greenhouse gas detector, atmospheric environment infrared detector at very high spectral resolution, differential absorption spectrometer for atmospheric trace gas, and multi-angle polarisation detector.

It’s clear that China has big plans for the space exploration and EO, and it soon could become the world leader in these fields – particularly if the data was made available more widely. No-one working in our community can ignore these developments and what potential future impact they may have.

Blue Phase at Wavelength 2018

Blue John Cavern

Last week I attended the 2018 Wavelength Conference in Sheffield. This is an annual gathering for the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society (RSPSoc) and is geared towards PhD students and early career scientists. The conference aim is to provide a welcoming and constructive atmosphere to present research and progress towards PhD’s, coupled with a vibrant social programme.

This was my first experience of a remote sensing conference and the cosy nature of the common room where it was held alongside the lack of pressure of a larger event lent itself well to its ambition.

The topics covered by the research varied greatly, each with a focus on how to apply remote sensing and photogrammetry techniques in novel ways to better understand the world around us. These ranged from tracking whales to monitoring rice fields and developing systems to track small scale landslides.

One key technology which was popular among the presentations was the application of machine learning, the training of an artificial intelligence (AI) to classify images for a variety of purposes. Given it is something I’m becoming involved in at Pixalytics, every mention of AI attracted my attention. One presentation which stuck out for me was its application to track the effects of crude oil pollution in the Niger delta region. Harnessing remote sensing data and utilising the power of machine learning to sift through hundreds or even thousands of images, classify details and pick out objects of interest to monitor environmental damage is a novel approach. It provides a direct link from the science to a serious real-world issue. Whilst a localised case, the techniques demonstrated have the potential to better inform our responses to these issues which in turn will help people being affected by these disasters.

This application of science combined with the potential to one day help people resonated with me greatly. It reminded me of the work I am currently doing on the Drought and Flood Mitigation Service project which will aid the lives of Ugandan farmers.

Two keynotes were delivered during the conference, one by Dr. Alistair Graham, from Geoger Ltd, and one from the Chairman of RSPSoc Dr. Richard Armitage. Dr. Graham’s keynote was fascinating as he delivered his experiences working in a multitude of different environments from corporate to SME’s in industry to post doc positions in academia. He explained the nuances of working in each area and the possible paths for career progression open to PhD students and other early career scientists. I fall into the latter category, but the perspective he provided convinced me to keep my options open for the future. At a time when industry and academia is changing rapidly anything could happen.

Dr. Armitage’s keynote was on responsive remote sensing and his talk focused on how to use the right remote sensing data at the right time and for the right area. For the problems we come across, identifying the correct approach to take with remote sensing data is crucial.

For example, two important factors to consider for any problem are spatial resolution and data type. Some features require 5m to be visible, whereas for others the 30m resolution can show what is required. Further to consider is what type of data is best suited for the problem, optical data has its advantages but infra-red can reveal insights that optical data cannot. Having come across these points before the keynote, it served as a good reinforcement on the topic.

Blue John in the rock.

The highlight of the conference for me was the tour around Blue John cavern. Tucked away in the Peak District, surrounded by stunning views of the hills, the cavern is home to the famous Blue John stone. The tour guide was a miner who had worked in the cavern for 15 years and his knowledge on the tour was remarkable, making every stop ever more interesting.

Whilst a lot of walking and climbing was done, the colourful Blue John that spotted the walls of the cavern, together with the extremely high ceilings carved out by long gone rivers made for amazing views. If you don’t mind cramped spaces and traversing up and down a large mine, then Blue John cavern is a fantastic place to go!

For my first conference experience Wavelength 2018 was a fantastic introduction. The welcoming atmosphere, getting to see the diverse nature of remote sensing and photogrammetry research going on right now and the insightful keynotes will stick with me for a long time. I highly recommend any early career scientist or PhD student to attend the next incarnation of this conference.

Chris Doyle
Junior Software Developer
Pixalytics Ltd

It’s British Science Week!

Science

Artist’s rendition of science – skovoroda/123RF Stock Photo

This week is British Science Week! It’s an annual event promoting science, technology, engineering and maths across the UK, and this year runs from the 9th to the 18th March.

Last year over one million people got involved, which is fantastic for encouraging and inspiring everyone to engage with science. This year there are a number of ways to participate:

Attending Events
Specific events are taking place all around the country and you can find them all here. There aren’t too many happening in Devon – something we’ll have to think about for next year!

We’d like to highlight the Family Fun Day happening next Saturday, 17th March, at the Norman Lockyer Observatory in Sidmouth. It is a great venue that we know well as Sam gave an Earth observation lecture there last year. On Saturday they will have hands-on activities, planetarium shows, solar and meteor observing amongst other things.

Citizen Science Project – The Plastic tide
This is our favourite activity this year as it’s remote sensing based! Its aim is to develop an automated classification algorithm to detect, identify and monitor marine litter from drone images.

Go onto the website, look at the images that appear and tag any marine litter that you see – it’s as easy as that! There are some guides and help from the team at Zooniverse who are developing the algorithm. I did my first fifteen minutes in the middle of writing this blog!

Everyone knows the problems of plastics in the oceans and the negative impact they have on pollution, wildlife and the food chain. This project is a fun and simple way for anyone to help clean our oceans and beaches. It is hoped that 250,000 images will be tagged during this week. Why don’t you contribute a few?

Run To The Deep – A virtual 10K Race
Run to the Deep is a free app which will accompany you whilst you run 10 000 metres to the ocean floor. It includes commentary from Pierre-Yves Cousteau, son of the marine conservationist Jacques Cousteau, and provides information about creatures, seascapes and things you’ll find deep in the ocean.

Schools Poster Competition
Schools are encouraged to get children designing posters on the theme of exploration and discovery, and enter the best ones into the national competition.

Download Activity Packs
There are downloadable activity packs available from the website for a variety of ages providing lots of exercises and activities promoting science, technology, engineering and maths.

British Science Week is run by the British Science Association (BSA) with funding from UK Government’s Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The origins of the BSA are fascinating, and have technology roots! In 1830 Professor Charles Babbage, one of the pioneers of computing, published ‘Reflections on the Decline of Science in England.’ It’s a fascinating read and one of the actions taken in response to this was the founding of the BSA in 1831, although at the time it was called the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

Appropriately, also taking place this week in Sheffield is the 2018 Wavelength Conference, the student and early career scientist conference of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society. Pixalytics sponsored this event and we hope to have a review of the conference in next week’s blog.

So whatever you are doing this week, try to include some science!

Merry Christmas!

UK at night. November 2017 monthly composite from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite,(Day/Night Band). Image and Data processing courtesy of Earth Observation Group, NOAA/NCEI.

MERRY CHRISTMAS

AND BEST WISHES FOR 2018 

from everyone at Pixalytics

3 Ways Earth Observation is Tackling Food Security

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

One of the key global challenges is food security. A number of reports issued last week, coinciding with World Food Day on the 16th October, demonstrated how Earth Observation (EO) could play a key part in tackling this.

Climate change is a key threat to food security. The implications were highlighted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report who described potential changes to suitable farmland for rainfed crops. Rainfed farming accounts for approximately 75 percent of global croplands, and it’s predicated that these locations will change in the coming years. Increased farmland will be available in North America, western Asia, eastern Asia and South America, whilst there will be a decline in Europe and the southern Great Plains of the US.

The work undertaken by USGS focussed on looking at the impact of temperature extremes and the associated changes in seasonality of soil moisture conditions. The author of the study, John Bradford said “Our results indicate the interaction of soil moisture and temperature extremes provides a powerful yet simple framework for understanding the conditions that define suitability for rainfed agriculture in drylands.” Soil moisture is a product that Pixalytics is currently working on, and its intriguing to see that this measurement could be used to monitor climate change.

Given that this issue may require farmers to change crops, work by India’s Union Ministry of Agriculture to use remote sensing data to identify areas best suited for growing different crops is interesting. The Coordinated Horticulture Assessment and Management using geoinformatics (CHAMAN) project has used data collected by satellites, including the Cartosat Series and RESOURCESAT-1, to map 185 districts in relation to the best conditions for growing bananas, mangos, citrus fruits, potatoes, onions, tomatoes and chilli peppers.

The results for eight states in the north east of the country will be presented in January, with the remainder a few months later, identifying the best crop for each district. Given that India is already the second largest producer of fruit and vegetables in the world, this is a fascinating strategic development to their agriculture industry.

The third report was the announcement of a project between the University of Queensland and the Chinese Academy of Sciences which hopes to improve the accuracy of crop yield predictions. EO data with an improved spatial, and temporal, resolution is being used alongside biophysical information to try to predict crop yield at a field scale in advance of the harvest. It is hoped that this project will produce an operational product through this holistic approach.

These are some examples of the way in which EO data is changing the way we look at agriculture, and potential help provide improved global food security in the future.

Inspiring the Next Generation of EO Scientists

Artist's rendition of a satellite - 3dsculptor/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – 3dsculptor/123RF Stock Photo

Last week, whilst Europe’s Earth Observation (EO) community was focussed on the successful launch of Sentinel-5P, over in America Tuesday 10th October was Earth Observation Day!

This annual event is co-ordinated by AmericaView, a non-profit organisation, whose aim to advance the widespread use of remote sensing data and technology through education and outreach, workforce development, applied research, and technology transfer to the public and private sectors.

Earth Observation Day is a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) event celebrating the Landsat mission and its forty-five year archive of imagery. Using satellite imagery provides valuable experience for children in maths and sciences, together with introducing subjects such as land cover, food production, hydrology, habitats, local climate and spatial thinking. The AmericaView website contains a wealth of EO materials available for teachers to use, from fun puzzles and games through to a variety of remote sensing tutorials. Even more impressive is that the event links schools to local scientists in remote sensing and geospatial technologies. These scientists provide support to teachers including giving talks, helping design lessons or being available to answer student’s questions.

This is a fantastic event by AmericaView, supporting by wonderful resources and remote sensing specialists. We first wrote about this three years ago, and thought the UK would benefit from something similar. We still do. The UK Space Agency recently had an opportunity for organisations interested in providing education and outreach activities to support EO, satellite launch programme or the James Webb Space Telescope. It will be interesting to see what the successful candidates come up with.

At Pixalytics we’re passionate about educating and inspiring the next generation of EO scientists. For example, we regularly support the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society’s Wavelength conference for students and early career scientists; and sponsored the Best Early-Career Researcher prize at this year’s GISRUK Conference. We’re also involved with two exciting events at Plymouth’s Marine Biological Association, a Young Marine Biologists (YMB) Summit for 12-18 year olds at the end of this month and their 2018 Postgraduate conference.

Why is this important?
The space industry, and the EO sector, is continuing to grow. According to Euroconsult’s ‘Satellites to Be Built & Launched by 2026 – I know this is another of the expensive reports we highlighted recently – there will be around 3,000 satellites with a mass above 50 kg launched in the next decade – of which around half are anticipated as being used for EO or communication purposes. This almost doubles the number of satellites launched in the last ten years and doesn’t include the increasing number of nano and cubesats going up.

Alongside the number of satellites, technological developments mean that the amount of EO data available is increasing almost exponentially. For example, earlier this month World View successfully completed multi-day flight of its Stratollite™ service, which uses high-altitude balloons coupled with the ability to steer within stratospheric winds. They can carry a variety of sensors, a mega-pixel camera was on the recent flight, offering an alternative vehicle for collecting EO data.

Therefore, we need a future EO workforce who are excited, and inspired, by the possibilities and who will take this data and do fantastic things with it.

To find that workforce we need to shout about our exciting industry and make sure everyone knows about the career opportunities available.

Supporting Soil Fertility From Space

Sentinel-2 pseudo-true colour composite from 2016 with a Kompsat-3 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product from 2015 inset. Sentinel data courtesy of ESA/Copernicus.

Last Tuesday I was at the academic launch event for the Tru-Nject project at Cranfield University. Despite the event’s title, it was in fact an end of project meeting. Pixalytics has been involved in the project since July 2015, when we agreed to source and process high resolution satellite Earth Observation (EO) imagery for them.

The Tru-Nject project is funded via Innovate UK. It’s official title is ‘Tru-Nject: Proximal soil sensing based variable rate application of subsurface fertiliser injection in vegetable/ combinable crops’. The focus is on modelling soil fertility within fields, to enable fertiliser to be applied in varying amounts using point-source injection technology which reduces the nitrogen loss to the atmosphere when compared with spreading fertiliser on the soil surface.

To do this the project created soil fertility maps from a combination of EO products, physical sampling and proximal soil sensing – where approximately 15 000 georeferenced hyperspectral spectra are collected using an instrument connected to a tractor. These fertility maps are then interpreted by an agronomist, who decides on the relative application of fertiliser.

Initial results have shown that applying increased fertiliser to areas of low fertility improves overall yield when compared to applying an equal amount of fertiliser everywhere, or applying more fertiliser to high yield areas.

Pixalytics involvement in the work focussed on acquiring and processing, historical, and new, sub 5 metre optical satellite imagery for two fields, near Hull and York. We have primarily acquired data from the Kompsat satellites operated by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), supplemented with WorldView data from DigitalGlobe. Once we’d acquired the imagery, we processed it to:

  • remove the effects of the atmosphere, termed atmospheric correction, and then
  • converted them to maps of vegetation greenness

The new imagery needed to coincide with a particular stage of crop growth, which meant the satellite data acquisition period was narrow. This led to a pleasant surprise for Dave George, Tru-Nject Project Manager, who said, “I never believed I’d get to tell a satellite what to do.’ To ensure that we collected data on specific days we did task the Kompsat satellites each year.

Whilst we were quite successful with the tasking the combination of this being the UK, and the fact that the fields were relatively small, meant that some of the images were partly affected by cloud. Where this occurred we gap-filled with Copernicus Sentinel-2 data, it has coarser spatial resolution (15m), but more regular acquisitions.

In addition, we also needed to undertake vicarious adjustment to ensure that we produced consistent products over time whilst the data came from different sensors with different specifications. As we cannot go to the satellite to measure its calibration, vicarious adjustment is a technique which uses ground measurements and algorithms to not only cross-calibrate the data, but also adjusts for errors in the atmospheric correction.

An example of the work is at the top, which shows a Sentinel-2 pseudo-true colour composite from 2016 with a Kompsat-3 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product from 2015 inset. The greener the NDVI product the more green the vegetation is, although the two datasets were collected in different years so the planting within the field varies.

We’ve really enjoyed working with Stockbridge Technology Centre Ltd (STC), Manterra Ltd, and Cranfield University, who were the partners in the project. Up until last week all the work was done via telephone and email, and so it was great to finally meet them in-person, hear about the successful project and discuss ideas for the future.

Landsat Turns 45!

False colour image of Dallas, Texas. The first fully operational Landsat image taken on July 25, 1972, Image courtesy: NASA’s Earth Observatory

Landsat has celebrated forty-five years of Earth observation this week. The first Landsat mission was Earth Resources Technology Satellite 1 (ERTS-1), which was launched into a sun-synchronous near polar orbit on the 23 July 1972. It wasn’t renamed Landsat-1 until 1975. It had an anticipated life of 1 year and carried two instruments: the Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) and the Return-Beam Vidicon (RBV).

The Landsat missions have data continuity at their heart, which has given a forty-five year archive of Earth observation imagery. However, as technological capabilities have developed the instruments on consecutive missions have improved. To demonstrate and celebrate this, NASA has produced a great video showing the changing coastal wetlands in Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana, through the eyes of the different Landsat missions.

In total there have been eight further Landsat missions, but Landsat 6 failed to reach its designated orbit and never collected any data. The missions have been:

  • Landsat 1 launched on 23 July 1972.
  • Landsat 2 launched on 22 January 1975.
  • Landsat 3 was launched on 5 March 1978.
  • Landsat 4 launched on 16 July 1982.
  • Landsat 5 launched on 1 March 1984.
  • Landsat 7 launched on 15 April 1999, and is still active.
  • Landsat 8 launched on 11 February 2013, and is still active.

Landsat 9 is planned to be launched at the end 2020 and Landsat 10 is already being discussed.

Some of the key successes of the Landsat mission include:

  • Over 7 million scenes of the Earth’s surface.
  • Over 22 million scenes had been downloaded through the USGS-EROS website since 2008, when the data was made free-to-access, with the rate continuing to increase (Campbell 2015).
  • Economic value of just one year of Landsat data far exceeds the multi-year total cost of building, launching, and managing Landsat satellites and sensors.
  • Landsat 5 officially set a new Guinness World Records title for the ‘Longest-operating Earth observation satellite’ with its 28 years and 10 months of operation when it was decommissioned in December 2012.
  • ESA provides Landsat data downlinked via their own data receiving stations; the ESA dataset includes data collected over the open ocean, whereas USGS does not, and the data is processed using ESA’s own processor.

The journey hasn’t always been smooth. Although established by NASA, Landsat was transferred to the private sector under the management of NOAA in the early 1980’s, before returning to US Government control in 1992. There have also been technical issues, the failure of Landsat 6 described above; and Landsat 7 suffering a Scan Line Corrector failure on the 31st May 2003 which means that instead of mapping in straight lines, a zigzag ground track is followed. This causes parts of the edge of the image not to be mapped, giving a black stripe effect within these images; although the centre of the images is unaffected the data overall can still be used.

Landsat was certainly a game changer in the remote sensing and Earth observation industries, both in terms of the data continuity approach and the decision to make the data free to access. It has provided an unrivalled archive of the changing planet which has been invaluable to scientists, researchers, book-writers and businesses like Pixalytics.

We salute Landsat and wish it many more years!

If no-one is there when an iceberg is born, does anyone see it?

Larsen C ice Shelf including A68 iceberg. Image acquired by MODIS Aqua satellite on 12th July 2017. Image courtesy of NASA.

The titular paraphrasing of the famous falling tree in the forest riddle was well and truly answered this week, and shows just how far satellite remote sensing has come in recent years.

Last week sometime between Monday 10th July and Wednesday 12th July 2017, a huge iceberg was created by splitting off the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica. It is one of the biggest icebergs every recorded according to scientists from Project MIDAS, a UK-based Antarctic research project, who estimate its area of be 5,800 sq km and to have a weight of more a trillion tonnes. It has reduced the Larsen C ice Shelf by more than twelve percent.

The iceberg has been named A68, which is a pretty boring name for such a huge iceberg. However, icebergs are named by the US National Ice Centre and the letter comes from where the iceberg was originally sited – in this case the A represents area zero degrees to ninety degrees west covering the Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas. The number is simply the order that they are discovered, which I assume means there have been 67 previous icebergs!

After satisfying my curiosity on the iceberg names, the other element that caught our interest was the host of Earth observation satellites that captured images of either the creation, or the newly birthed, iceberg. The ones we’ve spotted so far, although there may be others, are:

  • ESA’s Sentinel-1 has been monitoring the area for the last year as an iceberg splitting from Larsen C was expected. Sentinel-1’s SAR imagery has been crucial to this monitoring as the winter clouds and polar darkness would have made optical imagery difficult to regularly collect.
  • Whilst Sentinel-1 was monitoring the area, it was actually NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Aqua satellite which confirmed the ‘birth’ on the 12th July with a false colour image at 1 km spatial resolution using band 31 which measures infrared signals. This image is at the top of the blog and the dark blue shows where the surface is warmest and lighter blue indicates a cooler surface. The new iceberg can be seen in the centre of the image.
  • Longwave infrared imagery was also captured by the NOAA/NASA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite on July 13th.
  • Similarly, NASA also reported that Landsat 8 captured a false-colour image from its Thermal Infrared Sensor on the 12th July showing the relative warmth or coolness of the Larsen C ice shelf – with the area around the new iceberg being the warmest giving an indication of the energy involved in its creation.
  • Finally, Sentinel-3A has also got in on the thermal infrared measurement using the bands of its Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR).
  • ESA’s Cryosat has been used to calculate the size of iceberg by using its Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) which measured height of the iceberg out of the water. Using this data, it has been estimated that the iceberg contains around 1.155 cubic km of ice.
  • The only optical imagery we’ve seen so far is from the DEMIOS1 satellite which is owned by Deimos Imaging, an UrtheCast company. This is from the 14th July and revealed that the giant iceberg was already breaking up into smaller pieces.

It’s clear this is a huge iceberg, so huge in fact that most news agencies don’t think that readers can comprehend its vastness, and to help they give a comparison. Some of the ones I came across to explain its vastness were:

  • Size of the US State of Delaware
  • Twice the size of Luxembourg
  • Four times the size of greater London
  • Quarter of the size of Wales – UK people will know that Wales is almost an unofficial unit of size measurement in this country!
  • Has the volume of Lake Michigan
  • Has the twice the volume of Lake Erie
  • Has the volume of the 463 million Olympic-sized swimming pools; and
  • My favourite compares its size to the A68 road in the UK, which runs from Darlington to Edinburgh.

This event shows how satellites are monitoring the planet, and the different ways we can see the world changing.