Brexit: Science & Space

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Brexit currently dominates UK politics. Whilst it’s clear the UK is leaving the European Union (EU) in March 2019, the practical impact, and consequences, are still a confused fog hanging over everything. The UK Government Department for Exiting the European Union has been issuing position papers to set out how it sees the UK’s future arrangements with the EU.

Last week, the ‘Collaboration in science and innovation: a future partnership paper’ was issued. Given our company’s focus we were eager to see what was planned. Unfortunately, like a lot of the UK Government pronouncements on Brexit, it is high on rhetoric, but low on any helpful, or new, information or clarity.

It begins with a positive, but perhaps rather obvious, statement, stating that one of the UK’s core objectives is to ‘seek agreement to continue to collaborate with European partners on major science, research and technology initiatives.’

Future Partnership with EU Principles
Key aspects of the UK’s ambition for the future partnership include:

  • Science & Innovation collaboration is not only maintained, but strengthened.
  • With its strong research community, the UK wants an ambitious agreement for continued research co-operation.
  • Government wants the UK to be a hub for international talent in research, and to welcome the brightest and best people from around the world.

The principles are followed by four particular areas the UK wants to discuss with the EU. Interestingly, it specifically outlines how non-EU countries currently participate in each of these areas, which are Research & Innovation Framework Programmes, Space Programmes, Nuclear R&D and Defence R&D.

Research & Innovation Framework Programmes
Horizon 2020 is highlighted as the UK ranks top across the EU in terms of contracts and participants in it. The Government confirms its commitment to underwriting any projects submitted whilst the UK is still an EU member.

Support for this programme is good, however with an end date of 2020 it is going to be equally important to be a strong partner of whatever research funding programme that is going to follow.

Space Programmes
As we have described before the European Space Agency is not an EU institution, and so is not impacted by Brexit – a fact reinforced by the paper. Three key EU, rather than ESA, led space programmes are highlighted:

  • Galileo Navigation and Positioning System – Issues here surround both the use of the system and its ongoing development. UK firms have been key suppliers for this work including Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), Qinetiq, CGI, Airbus and Scisys.
  • Copernicus – The Copernicus Earth Observation data is freely available to anyone in the world. The key element here is about being at the table to influence the direction. Although, the paper does refer to existing precedents for third party participation.
  • Space Surveillance and Tracking – this is a new programme.

The paper states that given the unique nature of space programmes, the ‘EU and UK should discuss all options for future cooperation including new arrangements.’

What Is Not Said
There are a lot of positive and welcome words here, but also a huge amount unsaid, for example:

  • Interconnectivity: Science and innovation happens when researchers work together, so the UK’s approach to the movement of people is fundamental. Will the brightest and best be allowed to come and work here, and will they want to?
  • Education: Education is fundamental to this area, yet it does not merit a single mention in the paper. New researchers and early career scientists benefit hugely from programmes such as Erasmus, will our involvement in these continue?
  • Financial Contribution: How much is the UK willing to pay to be part of science and innovation programmes? The paper notes any financial contribution will have to be weighed against other spending priorities. Not exactly hugely encouraging.
  • Contractual Issues: Part of the issue with Galileo is that the contracts specifically exclude non-EU countries from involvement.. Whilst, it is possible to see that the UK could negotiate use of Galileo, continued involvement as a supplier may be more difficult.

Conclusion
The UK wants dialogue with the EU on far-reaching science and innovation agreement. This ambition is to be applauded, but we are a very long way away from that point. We hope both parties are able to work together to get there.

Flip-Sides of Soil Moisture

Soil Moisture changes between 19th and 25th August around Houston, Texas due to rainfall from Hurricane Harvey. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory image by Joshua Stevens, using soil moisture data courtesy of JPL and the SMAP science team.

Soil moisture is an interesting measurement as it can be used to monitor two diametrically opposed conditions, namely floods and droughts. This was highlighted last week by maps produced from satellite data for the USA and Italy respectively. These caught our attention because soil moisture gets discussed on a daily basis in the office, due to its involvement in a project we’re working on in Uganda.

Soil moisture can have a variety of meanings depending on the context. For this blog we’re using soil moisture to describe the amount of water held in spaces between the soil in the top few centimetres of the ground. Data is collected by radar satellites which measure microwaves reflected or emitted by the Earth’s surface. The intensity of the signal depends on the amount of water in the soil, enabling a soil moisture content to be calculated.

Floods
You can’t have failed to notice the devastating floods that have occurred recently in South Asia – particularly India, Nepal and Bangladesh – and in the USA. The South Asia floods were caused by monsoon rains, whilst the floods in Texas emanated from Hurricane Harvey.

Soil moisture measurements can be used to show the change in soil saturation. NASA Earth Observatory produced the map at the top of the blogs shows the change in soil moisture between the 19th and 25th August around Houston, Texas. The data is based on measurements acquired by the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, which uses a radiometer to measure soil moisture in the top 5 centimetres of the ground with a spatial resolution of around 9 km. On the map itself the size of each of the hexagons shows how much the level of soil moisture changed and the colour represents how saturated the soil is.

These readings have identified that soil moisture levels got as high as 60% in the immediate aftermath of the rainfall, partly due to the ferocity of the rain, which prevented the water from seeping down into the soil and so it instead remained at the surface.

Soil moisture in Italy during early August 2017. The data were compiled by ESA’s Soil Moisture CCI project. Data couresy of ESA. Copyright: C3S/ECMWF/TU Wien/VanderSat/EODC/AWST/Soil Moisture CCI

Droughts
By contrast, Italy has been suffering a summer of drought and hot days. This year parts of the country have not seen rain for months and the temperature has regularly topped one hundred degrees Fahrenheit – Rome, which has seventy percent less rainfall than normal, is planning to reduce water pressure at night for conservation efforts.

This has obviously caused an impact on the ground, and again a soil moisture map has been produced which demonstrates this. This time the data was come from the ESA’s Soil Moisture Climate Change Initiative project using soil moisture data from a variety of satellite instruments. The dataset was developed by the Vienna University of Technology with the Dutch company VanderSat B.V.

The map shows the soil moisture levels in Italy from the early part of last month, with the more red the areas, the lower the soil moisture content.

Summary
Soil moisture is a fascinating measurement that can provide insights into ground conditions whether the rain is falling a little or a lot.

It plays an important role in the development of weather patterns and the production of precipitation, and is crucial to understanding both the water and carbon cycles that impact our weather and climate.

Queen’s Speech Targets Space

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Last week was the State Opening of Parliament in the UK following the General Election, this included the Queen’s Speech which set out the legislation the Government intends introduce in the coming Parliament. As expected, Brexit dominated the headlines and so you may have missed the announcement of the Space Industry Bill.

The space sector has been a growth target for the Government since 2010, when it set an ambitious target of delivering 10% of the global space economy. The last UK Space Agency report covered 2014/15 and indicated the industry was worth £13.7bn – equivalent to 6.5% of the global space economy.

Our space industry is inextricably linked to Europe through the European Space Agency (ESA). Whilst, as we have described before, Brexit won’t affect our role in ESA, other projects such as Copernicus and Galileo are EU led projects and the UK’s future involvement isn’t clear. This Bill is part of the Government’s response, and its aim is to make the UK the most attractive place in Europe for commercial space activities.

We’ve previously written about the current UK licencing and regulatory arrangements for anyone who wants to launch an object into space, as detailed in the Outer Space Act 1986. This Bill will change that framework and has the following key elements:

  • New powers to license a wide range of spaceflight activities, including vertically-launched rockets, spaceplanes, satellite operations, spaceports and other technologies.
  • Comprehensive and proportionate regulatory framework to manage risk.
  • Measures to regulate unauthorised access and interference with spacecraft, spaceports and associated infrastructure.
  • Measures to promote public safety by providing a regulatory framework to cover operational insurance, indemnity and liability.

The Bill itself is based on the draft Spaceflight Bill published in February, together with the Government responses to the twelve recommendations of the Science and Technology Committee Report on the Draft Spaceflight Bill which was issued on the 22nd June.

There are still a number of questions to be answered over the coming months.

  • Limited Liability: Currently, the standard requirement is to have insurance of at least €60 million. However, the draft Bill suggests that insurance requirements will be determined as part of the license application process. Clearly, the different types of spaceflight will have different risks and so having flexibility makes sense; however, until the industry understands this aspects it will be a concerning area of uncertainty.
  • Spaceports: Previously, the Government intended to select a location for a spaceport, but last year this changed to offering licences for spaceports. This means there could be multiple spaceports in the country, but it is questionable whether there is sufficient business to support multiple sites. Given the specialist knowledge and skills needed to launch spacecraft, it is likely that a preferred site will eventually emerge, with or without Government involvement.
  • Speed of Change: Back in 2012 the Government acknowledged that regulations for launching objects into space needed to be revised as they didn’t suit smaller satellites. Since that time satellites have got even smaller, constellation launches are increasing rapidly and costs are decreasing. The legislation and regulations will need to evolve as quickly as the technology, if the UK is to be the most attractive place to do business. Can we do this?

The UK Space Industry is in for a roller coaster over the coming years. Brexit will undoubtedly be challenging, and will throw up many threats; whereas the Space Industry Bill will offer opportunities. To be successful companies will need to tread a careful path.

Blue Holes from Space

Andros Island in The Bahamas. Acquired by Landsat 8 in February 2017. Data courtesy of NASA.

Blue holes are deep marine caverns or sinkholes which are open at the surface, and they get their name from their apparent blue colour of their surface due to the scattering of the light within water. The often contain both seawater and freshwater, and in their depths the water is very clear which makes them very popular with divers.

The term ‘blue hole’ first appeared on sea charts from the Bahamas in 1843, although the concept of submarine caves had been described a century earlier (from Schwabe and Carew, 2006). There are a number of well-known blue holes in Belize, Egypt and Malta amongst others. The Dragon Hole in the South China Sea is believed to be the deepest blue hole with a depth of 300 metres.

The Andros Island in The Bahamas has the highest concentration of blue holes in the world, and last week we watched a television programme called River Monsters featuring this area. The presenter, Jeremy Wade, was investigating the mythical Lusca, a Caribbean sea creature which reportedly attacks swimmers and divers pulling them down to their lairs deep within of the blue holes. Jeremy fished and dived some blue holes, and spoke to people who had seen the creature. By the end he believed the myth of the Lusca was mostly likely based on a giant octopus. Whilst this was interesting, by the end of the programme we were far more interested in whether you could see blue holes from space.

The image at the top is Andros Island. Although, technically it’s an archipelago, it is considered as a single island. It’s the largest island of The Bahamas and at 2,300 square miles is the fifth largest in the Caribbean. There are a number of well known blue holes in Andros, both inland and off the coast, such as:

Blues in the Blue Hole National Park on the Andros Island in The Bahamas. Acquired by Landsat 8 in February 2017. Data courtesy of NASA.

  • Blue Holes National Park covers over 33,000 acres and includes a variety of blue holes, freshwater reservoirs and forests within its boundaries. The image to the right covers an area of the national park. In the centre, just above the green water there are five black circles  – despite the colour, these are blue holes.
  • Uncle Charlie’s Blue Hole, also called Little Frenchman Blue Hole, is just off Queen’s Highway in Nicholls Town and has a maximum depth of 127 metres.
  • Atlantis Blue Hole has a maximum depth of about 85 metres.
  • Stargate Blue Hole his blue hole is located about 500 miles inland from the east coast of South Andros on the west side of The Bluff village.
  • Guardian Blue Hole is in the ocean and is believed to have the second deepest cave in The Bahamas, with a maximum explored depth of 133 metres.

Blue hole in the south of Andros Island in The Bahamas. Acquired by Landsat 8 in February 2017. Data courtesy of NASA.

The image to the right is from the south of the island. Just off the centre, you can see a blue hole surrounded by forests and vegetation.

So we can confirm that the amazing natural features called blue holes can be seen from space, even if they don’t always appear blue!

Monitoring Fires From Space

Monitoring fires from space has significant advantages when compared to on-ground activity. Not only are wider areas easier to monitor, but there are obvious safety benefits too. The different ways this can be done have been highlighted through a number of reports over the last few weeks.

VIIRS Image from 25 April 2017, of the Yucatán Peninsula showing where thermal bands have picked-up increased temperatures. Data Courtesy of NASA, NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE/EOSDIS Rapid Response.

Firstly, NASA have released images from different instruments, on different satellites, that illustrate two ways of how satellites can monitor fires.

Acquired on the 25 April 2017, an image from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite showed widespread fire activity across the Yucatán Peninsula in South America. The image to the right is a natural colour image and each of the red dots represents a point where the instrument’s thermal band detected temperatures higher than normal.

False colour image of the West Mims fire on Florida/Georgia boundary acquired by MODIS on 02 May 2017. Data courtesy of NASA. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE/EOSDIS Rapid Response.

Compare this to a wildfire on Florida-Georgia border acquired from NASA’s Aqua satellite on the 02 May 2017 using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). On the natural colour image the fires could only be seen as smoke plumes, but on the left is the false colour image which combines infrared, near-infrared and green wavelengths. The burnt areas can be clearly seen in brown, whilst the fire itself is shown as orange.

This week it was reported that the Punjab Remote Sensing Centre in India, has been combining remote sensing, geographical information systems and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to identify the burning of crop stubble in fields; it appears that the MODIS fire products are part of contributing the satellite data. During April, 788 illegal field fires were identified through this technique and with the GPS data the authorities have been able to identify, and fine, 226 farmers for undertaking this practice.

Imaged by Sentinel-2, burnt areas, shown in shades of red and purple, in the Marantaceae forests in the north of the Republic of Congo.
Data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA. Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016), processed by ESA.

Finally, a report at the end of April from the European Space Agency described how images from Sentinel-1 and Senintel-2 have been combined to assess the amount of forest that was burnt last year in the Republic of Congo in Africa – the majority of which was in Marantaceae forests. As this area has frequent cloud cover, the optical images from Sentinel-2 were combined with the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from Sentinel-1 that are unaffected by the weather to offer an enhanced solution.

Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data detect and monitor forest fires at a finer temporal and spatial resolution than previously possible, namely 10 days and 10 m, although the temporal resolution will increase to 5 days later this year when Sentinel-2B becomes fully operational.  Through this work, it was estimated that 36 000 hectares of forest were burnt in 2016.

Given the danger presented by forest fires and wildfires, greater monitoring from space should improve fire identification and emergency responses which should potentially help save lives. This is another example of the societal benefit of satellite remote sensing.

Brexit Biting for UK Space Industry

Artist's rendition of a satellite - mechanik/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – mechanik/123RF Stock Photo

UK companies involved in European Commission space programmes face an uncertain future according to media reports over the last week. The Financial Times reported that the European Commission wanted two key clauses in the contracts for work on the next part of the €10 bn Galileo Satellite Navigation System. These would allow the Commission to:

  • Cancel the contracts, without penalty, of any supplier who is no longer based in an European Union (EU) member state; and then
  • Charge that supplier all costs associated with finding their replacements.

Clearly, this poses a huge risk to UK companies given the fact that the UK has indicated its intention to leave the EU in 2019 by triggering Article 50. We wrote about the potential impacts of Brexit last year, and whilst we did pick up concerns over Galileo we didn’t see this coming!

Should the UK Space Industry be concerned?
Yes!

Despite reports to the contrary, this does not mean we are leaving the European Space Agency (ESA). We are very much remaining part of ESA, something that was confirmed at the ministerial in December. This solely relates to programmes owned, and funded, by the European Union (EU). However, it is concerning for two key reasons:

  • Anyone who has tried to negotiate contract terms with large governmental organisations will be aware that it tends to be a binary take it or leave it scenario. Therefore, if these clauses are in the contract, then it is highly likely companies will have to sign up to them to get the work.
  • It may not just be Galileo, the Copernicus Programme could be next. Copernicus is also an EU programme, and therefore it has to be a possibility that they may apply the same clauses to future Copernicus tenders. Galileo isn’t something Pixalytics is involved with, but if this was extended to Copernicus we’d be potentially impacted and would need to make choices.

What Can UK Companies Do?
The options are limited:

  • Bid anyway! Accept the potential financial risk, or hope that it will get resolved within the various Brexit negotiations. Given the size of these contracts, it will be a brave CEO who goes down this route.
  • Not bidding for any Galileo contract is probably the financially prudent option, but equally it removes a significant revenue stream.
  • Move to another European Country. I think there will be a number of companies who will be looking at moving some, or all, of their operations to another EU member state.

Any Causes For Optimism?
Not really, but there are tiny strands of hope.

  • Security – A key issue with Galileo is security. Currently, all EU members have agreements on security and when the UK leaves the EU, it leaves that agreement. Of course, security is just one of hundreds of agreements the UK will be hoping to discuss with the EU through Brexit negations. If security agreements are reached with the UK, maybe the position will change.
  • UK Election – Whilst writing this blog, the UK Prime Minister has announced a General Election in June. Parliamentary changes may influence the type of Brexit we have, but again it is highly unlikely.

It was fairly obvious, despite the contrary political rhetoric, that Brexit would have huge consequences on the UK’s relationship with Europe.

The UK’s space industry looks as though it will be at the forefront of those consequences. Forget 2019, the bite of Brexit is being felt today!

Pixalytics Goes To Space … Well, Nearly!

Last week the Pixalytics name got lifted towards space! In a previous blog we described how we were supporting the Plymouth University Space Society launching a weather balloon.

After a number of attempts were thwarted by the wind and weather patterns of Plymouth, last Friday was the big day. A small band of the Space Society pioneers alongside myself and Howard from Salcombe Gin, spent half an hour battling to control a weather balloon in the wind as it was pumped full of gas and had a small Pixalytics branded payload attached including a Go-Pro Camera, balloon locator, various battery packs and a small bottle of Salcombe Gin. At the top of the blog is an image of the gin high above Plymouth.

Once we were ready, the balloon was carefully walked back a few paces, and then with our hearts in our mouths, it was launched! We watched it rise gloriously until it disappeared into the low cloud that was covering the city. For anyone who wants to see the launch, it was filmed and streamed on Facebook and the recording can be found here.

Once the launch euphoria had subsided, the Space Society team jumped into a car to follow the balloon towards the predicted landing site of Taunton. The payload had a device inside which when called replied with the balloon’s location to enable progress to be tracked. The balloon actually ended up around thirty miles to the east of the prediction, coming to rest back on Earth in Yeovil. Once they got close, the team had to ask an elderly resident for permission to look through her garden for the payload package. However, it was a success and the payload was retrieved!!

On examination of the footage, sadly the Go-Pro seemed to malfunction about 15 minutes into the flight and therefore we were not able to get full flight footage. However, this is the space industry and not everything goes to plan. Once you launch most things are out of your hands!

From the flight length and distance travelled the Space Society team estimate that the balloon went up above 32,000 m. Whilst that is only about one third of the way to the Karman line, which sits around 100,000m and is commonly viewed as the boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and the outer space, it’s probably the highest point the Pixalytics name will ever get!

Readers will be aware that we do like the unusual marketing opportunity. We’ve previously had our name going at 100 miles per hour aboard a Caterham Formula One car, so who knows what might be next?

It was great to support local students with their adventure towards space, and hopefully it will inspire them to get a job in our industry and develop their own space career!

Plymouth Student’s Shot at Space!

From left to right: Fraser Searle (President), Sam Kennerley (Secretary) of Plymouth University Space Society, with the equipment to launch the balloon.

Plymouth University’s Space Society plans to send a small bottle of gin ‘into space’ attached to a weather balloon at the end of March.

The aim is to send the bottle 100,000 feet above the Earth, equivalent to 30 kilometres, and then bring it back safely. On its return, in true student fashion, they intend to use it to drink a few ‘space cocktails’!

The idea for launching the weather balloon began last summer when Fraser Searle and Nick Hardacre, who lead the Space Society at Plymouth University, were looking for ways to create interest in space in the local community. They originally hoped to send a bottle of local gin up, but soon found the challenges of working in a sub zero environment. It would have taken a balloon one and half times the size of the current one and double the volume of helium, so they changed to the shot glass.

They’ll also be attaching cameras and tracking equipment to the six metre diameter balloon to record and monitor the journey. The students have a roller coaster of emotions at the moment as Fraser explained, “We’re feeling excited, but I do get waves of nerves as to whether the glass and the cameras will return unharmed. We’re also wondering if the pictures and videos will be clear.”

Technically, the weather balloon won’t get into space. It should reach the upper half of the stratosphere, an area known as near space. As this area stretches from 20km to 100km above the Earth, ‘near’ is a relative term.

Pixalytics got involved with the project before Christmas, when we helped with sponsorship to enable the students to finish purchasing the necessary equipment. We’re also hoping to provide support in reviewing and interpreting the images the cameras collect on the journey. It’ll be interesting to compare what the weather balloon sees, with what various satellite imagery shows.

We’re strong supporters of events that encourage students and early career scientists to enhance their understanding of remote sensing, space and science. We sponsor student conferences and prizes that take place in the UK. So, it’s fantastic to get involved in something much closer to home.

Launching a weather balloon requires permission from the Civil Aviation Authority, and is also highly weather dependent. A planned launched at the end of January had to be abandoned as the balloon was likely to end up in Portsmouth or Calais harbour.

However, the team have once again got the relevant permissions to try again this coming week. The exact launch date will depend on the wind and weather patterns around Plymouth, which are always fairly turbulent. Fraser said, “We’ll be glued to the online predictors to find a launch slot.”

This is great local project for Plymouth, and we’re pleased to be able to support it. We have our fingers crossed for suitable weather, but only time will tell if they manage to conquer space!

Earth Observation Looking Good in 2017!

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

2017 is looking like an exciting one for Earth Observation (EO), judging by the number of significant satellites planned for launch this year.

We thought it would be interesting to give an overview of some of the key EO launches we’ve got to look forward to in the next twelve months.

The European Space Agency (ESA) has planned launches of:

  • Sentinel-2B in March, Sentinel-5p in June and Sentinel-3B in August – all of which we discussed last week.
  • ADM-Aeolus satellite is intended to be launched by the end of the year carrying an Atmospheric Laser Doppler Instrument. This is essentially a lidar instrument which will provide global measurements of wind profiles from ground up to the stratosphere with 0.5 to 2 km vertical resolution.

From the US, both NASA and NOAA have important satellite launches:

  • NASA’s Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) Mission is planned for June, and will provide observations of Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere; exploring the boundary between Earth and space.
  • NASA’s ICESat-2 in November that will measure ice sheet elevation, ice sheet thickness changes and the Earth’s vegetation biomass.
  • In June NOAA will be launching the first of its Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) missions, a series of next-generation polar-orbiting weather observatories.
  • Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment – Follow-On (GRACE_FO) are a pair of twin satellites to extend measurements from the GRACE satellite, maintaining data continuity. These satellites use microwaves to measure the changes in the Earth’s gravity fields to help map changes in the oceans, ice sheets and land masses. It is planned for launch right at the end of 2017, and is a partnership between NASA and the German Research Centre for Geosciences.

Some of the other launches planned include:

  • Kanopus-V-IK is a small Russian remote sensing satellite with an infrared capability to be used for forest fire detection. It has a 5 m by 5 m spatial resolution over a 2000 km swath, and is planned to be launched next month.
  • Vegetation and Environment monitoring on a New MicroSatellite (VENµS), which is partnership between France and Israel has a planned launch of August. As its name suggests it will be monitoring ecosytems, global carbon cycles, land use and land change.
  • KhalifaSat is the third EO satellite of United Arab Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST). It is an optical satellite with a spatial resolution of 0.75 m for the visible and near infrared bands.

Finally, one of the most intriguing launches involves three satellites that form the next part of India’s CartoSat mission. These satellites will carry both high resolution multi- spectral imagers and a panchromatic camera, and the mission’s focus is cartography. It’s not these three satellites that make this launch intriguing, it is the one hundred other satellites that will accompany them!

The Indian Space Research Organisation’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C37, will aim to launch a record 103 satellites in one go. Given that the current record for satellites launched in one go is 37, and that over the last few years we’ve only had around two hundred and twenty satellites launched in an entire year; this will be a hugely significant achievement.

So there you go. Not a fully comprehensive list, as I know there will be others, but hopefully it gives you a flavour of what to expect.

It certainly shows that the EO is not slowing down, and the amount of data available is continuing to grow. This of course gives everyone working in the industry more challenges in terms of storage and processing power – but they are good problems to have. Exciting year ahead!

Have you read the top Pixalytics blogs of 2016?

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

As this is the final blog of the year we’d like to take a look back over the past fifty-two weeks and see which blog’s captured people’s attention, and conversely which did not!

It turns out that seven of the ten most widely viewed blogs of the last year weren’t even written in 2016. Four were written in 2015, and three were written in 2014! The other obvious trend is the interest in the number of satellites in space, which can be seen by the titles of six of the ten most widely read blogs:

We’ve also found these blogs quoted by a variety of other web pages, and the occasional report. It’s always interesting to see where we’re quoted!

The other most read blogs of the year were:

Whilst only three of 2016’s blogs made our top ten, this is partly understandable as they have less time to attract the interest of readers and Google. However, looking at most read blogs of 2016 shows an interest in the growth of the Earth Observation market, Brexit, different types of data and Playboy!

We’ve now completed three years of weekly blogs, and the views on our website have grown steadily. This year has seen a significant increase in viewed pages, which is something we’re delighted to see.

We like our blog to be of interest to our colleagues in remote sensing and Earth observation, although we also touch on issues of interest to the wide space, and small business, communities.

At Pixalytics we believe strongly in education and training in both science and remote sensing, together with supporting early career scientists. As such we have a number of students and scientists working with us during the year, and we always like them to write a blog. Something they’re not always keen on at the start! This year we’ve had pieces on:

Writing a blog each week can be hard work, as Wednesday mornings always seem to come around very quickly. However, we think this work adds value to our business and makes a small contribution to explaining the industry in which we work.

Thanks for reading this year, and we hope we can catch your interest again next year.

We’d like to wish everyone a Happy New Year, and a very successful 2017!