It’s British Science Week!


Artist’s rendition of science – skovoroda/123RF Stock Photo

This week is British Science Week! It’s an annual event promoting science, technology, engineering and maths across the UK, and this year runs from the 9th to the 18th March.

Last year over one million people got involved, which is fantastic for encouraging and inspiring everyone to engage with science. This year there are a number of ways to participate:

Attending Events
Specific events are taking place all around the country and you can find them all here. There aren’t too many happening in Devon – something we’ll have to think about for next year!

We’d like to highlight the Family Fun Day happening next Saturday, 17th March, at the Norman Lockyer Observatory in Sidmouth. It is a great venue that we know well as Sam gave an Earth observation lecture there last year. On Saturday they will have hands-on activities, planetarium shows, solar and meteor observing amongst other things.

Citizen Science Project – The Plastic tide
This is our favourite activity this year as it’s remote sensing based! Its aim is to develop an automated classification algorithm to detect, identify and monitor marine litter from drone images.

Go onto the website, look at the images that appear and tag any marine litter that you see – it’s as easy as that! There are some guides and help from the team at Zooniverse who are developing the algorithm. I did my first fifteen minutes in the middle of writing this blog!

Everyone knows the problems of plastics in the oceans and the negative impact they have on pollution, wildlife and the food chain. This project is a fun and simple way for anyone to help clean our oceans and beaches. It is hoped that 250,000 images will be tagged during this week. Why don’t you contribute a few?

Run To The Deep – A virtual 10K Race
Run to the Deep is a free app which will accompany you whilst you run 10 000 metres to the ocean floor. It includes commentary from Pierre-Yves Cousteau, son of the marine conservationist Jacques Cousteau, and provides information about creatures, seascapes and things you’ll find deep in the ocean.

Schools Poster Competition
Schools are encouraged to get children designing posters on the theme of exploration and discovery, and enter the best ones into the national competition.

Download Activity Packs
There are downloadable activity packs available from the website for a variety of ages providing lots of exercises and activities promoting science, technology, engineering and maths.

British Science Week is run by the British Science Association (BSA) with funding from UK Government’s Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The origins of the BSA are fascinating, and have technology roots! In 1830 Professor Charles Babbage, one of the pioneers of computing, published ‘Reflections on the Decline of Science in England.’ It’s a fascinating read and one of the actions taken in response to this was the founding of the BSA in 1831, although at the time it was called the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

Appropriately, also taking place this week in Sheffield is the 2018 Wavelength Conference, the student and early career scientist conference of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society. Pixalytics sponsored this event and we hope to have a review of the conference in next week’s blog.

So whatever you are doing this week, try to include some science!

UK Focusing on Agri-tech

Agri-tech has long been seen as an exploitable opportunity for Earth Observation (EO). This was highlighted again last week by Greg Clark MP, the Business Secretary, at his speech at the National Farmers’ Union Conference in Birmingham where he announced a £90 million investment in the agri-tech sector specifically relating to EO, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

A definition of agri-tech can be the use of technology to improve agriculture production in terms of yield, efficiency and profitability. Despite all the innovations we’ve had in farming, according to the United Nations, there is still one in nine people in the the world undernourished.

In addition, UNESCO estimates that with the growing global population we’ll need sixty percent more food produced by 2050. Innovative and news ways of working within food production are going to be vital to deliver this level of increase. However, it’s a complex issue. Other critical factors include water demand from agriculture that is already expected to rise by 20% in the coming years, and the agriculture sector is also the largest employer in the world with almost forty percent of the world’s population dependent on it for their livelihoods.

The Government announcement last week recognised the importance of the agriculture industry within this country, as the sector employs four million people and provides £14.3 billion to the national economy. However, we were a little surprised to read that there are half a million jobs solely working in agri-tech in the UK.

The money announced is part of the Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund that was established last year to provide £4.7 billion for research and development to support the Government’s Industrial Strategy. It has a number of challenges and this one is part of Transforming Food Production: From Farm to Fork. Further details are expected, but they have indicated they’re looking to make food production more efficient, productive and sustainable, as well as bringing highly skilled jobs to rural areas and develop some of the exports the UK is likely to need post Brexit.

EO, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics all offer huge possibilities in this area, not only in the food production but also in reducing pollution, waste and land management. For us the EO area is very exciting, and we’ve been involved in the sector for some time. Pixalytics is currently involved in a project in Uganda to support farmers on Drought and Flood Mitigation, and this week Sam is in South America kicking off a project directly supporting rice and palm oil growers.

In addition locally to us, Cornwall has an active agri-tech hub helping small and medium-sized Cornish companies innovate in this sector with support from various academic institutes including Plymouth University who through its Sustainable Earth Institute have projects including robotic systems for automating manual picking operations, developing the manufacture and analysis of artificial soils and the expansion of hydroponic growing environments.

We’ll be keeping an eye on the next stage in this challenge, as we’re always looking for new EO projects and opportunities within agri-tech. If the Government is serious about its stated ambition to put the country at the forefront of this revolution, there should be exciting times ahead.

Monitoring Water Quality from Space

Algal Blooms in Lake Erie, around Monroe, acquired by Sentinel-2 on 3rd August 2017. Data Courtesy of ESA/Copernicus.

Two projects using Earth Observation (EO) data to monitor water quality caught our eye recently. As we’re in process of developing two water quality products for our own online portal, we’re interested in what everyone else is doing!

At the end of January UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme launched a tool to monitor global water quality. The International Initiative on Water Quality (IIWQ) World Water Quality Portal, built by EOMAP, provides:

  • turbidity and sedimentation distribution
  • chlorophyll-a concentration
  • Harmful Algal Blooms indicator
  • organic absorption
  • surface temperature

Based on optical data from Landsat and Sentinel-2 it can provide global surface water mosaics at 90 m spatial resolution, alongside 30 m resolution for seven pilot river basins.  The portal was launched in Paris at the “Water Quality Monitoring using Earth Observation and Satellite-based Information” meeting and was accompanied by an exhibition on “Water Quality from the Space – Mesmerizing Images of Earth Observation”.

The tool, which can be found here, focuses on providing colour visualizations of the data alongside data legends to help make it as easy as possible to use. It is hoped that this will help inform and educate policy makers, water professionals and the wider public about the value of using satellite data from monitoring water resources.

A second interesting project, albeit on a smaller scale, was announced last week which is going to use Sentinel-2 imagery to monitor water quality in Scottish Lochs. Dr Claire Neil, from the University of Stirling, is leading the project and will be working with Scottish Environment Protection Agency. It will use reflectance measures to estimate the chlorophyll-a concentrations to help identify algal blooms and other contaminants in the waters. The project will offer an alternative approach to the current water quality monitoring, which uses sampling close to the water’s edge.

An interesting feature of the project, particularly for us, is the intention to focus on developing this work into an operational capability for SEPA to enable them to improve their approach to assessing water quality.

This transition from a ‘good idea’ into an operational product that will be used, and therefore purchased, by end users is what all EO companies are looking for and we’re not different. Our Pixalytics Portal which we discussed a couple of weeks ago is one of the ways we are trying to move in that direction. We have two water quality monitoring products on it:

  • Open Ocean Water Quality product extracts time-series data from a variety of 4 km resolution satellite datasets from NASA, giving an overview what is happening in the water without the need to download a lot of data.
  • Planning for Coastal Airborne Lidar Surveys product provides an assessment of the penetration depth of a Lidar laser beam, from an airborne survey system, within coastal waters based on the turbidity of the water. This ensures that companies who plan overflights can have confidence in how far their Lidar will see.

We’re just at the starting point in productizing the services we offer, and so it is always good to see how others are approaching the similar problem!

Flywheels Spinning At Data.Space

The Data.Space Conference took place last week in Glasgow. It was an interesting, thought-provoking and useful event, which felt very friendly and was distinguished by the seniority of the attendees with a lot of companies were represented by CEO’s, MD’s and owners/founders.

The event began with the session ‘Listening to our Earth’ with presentations from Spire, Hawkeye360, KSAT, CGI UK and Promos Ventures. We were particularly caught by the idea from Peter Platzer of Spire, who talked about the flywheel and how you need to build momentum within companies to move from good to great, in particular focussing on making a tenfold improvement on what currently exists.

Sam gave her presentation in the second session on ‘Looking at our Earth’, which can be accessed here. We found it encouraging that some of the key messages that we picked out were echoed by other presenters, both in this session and others. The common themes highlighted included:

  • Stop focussing on imagery, and focus more on customer needs.
  • Demonstrate the problem that the Earth Observation (EO) data solves and the value it adds.
  • The fact that the data comes from space isn’t critical to the customer.

We had a number of people come up after Samantha’s presentation to say how much they enjoyed it, which is always good! Interestingly, hers was not the only presentation that Pixalytics got mentioned in. Our blog on ‘Earth Observation Satellites in Space’ was name checked by Will Cadell, CEO of Sparkgeo, in the session after lunch. A highlight of which was Grega Milcinski, CEO Sinergise, demonstrating the possibilities of the Sentinel Hub and how they are making a lot of their code available on GitHub to enable others to build on it.

The second day began with a thought provoking session on using EO to create a better planet. Temporal resolution, file sizes, lack of internet facilities and the need to have quick simple maps was highlighted as a challenge to using EO data in disaster relief scenarios. Access to datasets was highlighted by Tony Long, Global Fishing Watch, as a barrier to providing a planet wide view of what is happening. It was also great to listen to Steve Lee from Astrosat talk about their experiences of two UK Space Agency International Partnership Programme projects, and pick up some pointers for the ones we’re involved in.

As a micro company, the second session of this day was fascinating to us giving an overview of what investors and venture capital people look for in companies. It was heartening to hear that data analytics is seen as having a lot of value, but less positive was that the vast majority of funding in this area is going into the US. It was also noted that these funders aren’t interested in funding research, they want to get in on the ‘Last Mile’ of a product or service – making us wonder whether we would ever be attractive to investors!

Pixalytics Stand at Data.Space

Throughout the conference we manned our small table, surrounded by companies with the obligatory pop-up banners. We stood alone bare backed as we flew to Glasgow on Easyjet and a pop-up banner would have been an extra bag! We had lots of interesting conversations over potential collaborations, new customers, product ideas and solutions to challenges; and we even managed to sell a couple of copies of our book! We were able to demonstrate our portal, and we got some really good feedback. We’ll be looking for more feedback and some beta testers over the coming weeks – please get in touch in you’re interested! Finally, we‘d also like to commend the fantastic food offering at the event, which had lots of lovely Scottish notes.

Overall, this was a great event and we’ll certainly be looking to go back next year!

Five Learning Points For Developing An Earth Observation Product Portal

Landsat mosaic image of the Isle of Wight. Data courtesy of NASA.

This week we’re gently unveiling our Pixalytics Portal at the DATA.SPACE 2018 Conference taking place in Glasgow.

We’ve not attended DATA.SPACE before, but great feedback from some of the last years attendees convinced us to come. It’s an international conference focusing on the commercial opportunities available through the exploitation of space-enabled data and so it seemed the perfect place to demonstrate our new development.

Regular readers will know we’ve had the product portal idea for a little while, but it often went to the back of the work queue when compared to existing work, bid preparation and our other developments. Hence, six months ago we pinpointed the DATA.SPACE as our unveiling event!

On the 1st and 2nd February at Technology & Innovation Centre in Glasgow we have a stand where we’re inviting everyone to come up and have a look at the portal and give us feedback on the idea, principles and the look and feel of the portal.

We’re demonstrating five products, and we’re looking to expand this, these are:

  • Landscape Maps of the UK
  • Water Extent Mapping
  • Flood Water Mapping
  • Coastal Airborne Lidar Survey Planning Datasets
  • Open Ocean Water Quality Parameters

We’re not just attending, we’re exhibiting and Sam’s presenting!! So we’re going to have the full triumvirate conference experience. Sam is presenting in the first day’s second session titled ‘Looking at our Earth’ which starts at 11.10am. Her presentation is called ‘Growing Earth Observation By Being More Friendly.’

Developing this portal to its current state has been a really interesting journey. When we began we didn’t know why some of the larger companies haven’t cracked this already! Six months later and we’ve started to understand the challenges!

We thought it might be helpful to reveal are five top learning points for any other SME’s in our industry considering developing a portal. They are:

  1. Challenging the Digital e-commerce Process: Standard digital e-commerce systems allow customers to purchase a product and then download it immediately. The need to have an additional step of a few minutes, or even hours, to undertake data processing complicates things. It means that simple off-the-shelf plug-ins won’t work.
  2. Don’t Go for Perfection: Building a perfect portal will take time. We’ve adopted the approach of Eric Ries, author of The Startup Way, who advocates building a system for ten purchases. We’re perhaps a bit beyond that, but certainly we know that this will only be the first iteration of our portal.
  3. Linking The Moving Parts: Our portal has a web-front end, a cloud processing backend and the need to download requested data. We’ve tried to limit the amount of data and processing needed, but we can’t eliminate it entirely. This means there are a lot of moving parts to get right, and a lot of error capturing to be done!
  4. Legal & Tax issues: Sorting out the products is only one part of the process, don’t forget to do the legal and tax side as that has implications on your approach. We have learnt a lot about the specific requirements of digital services in e-commerce!
  5. Have a deadline: We chose to exhibit at DATA.SPACE to give us a deadline. We knew if we didn’t have a hard deadline we’d still be debating the products to include, and have developed none of them! The deadline has moved us really close to having a portal.

If you’re at DATA.SPACE this week, please come up and say hello. If you’ve got a few minutes to spare we’d love to get you feedback on our portal.

EO Market Is a-Changin’

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Historically, if you wanted satellite Earth Observation (EO) data your first port of call was usually NASA, or NOAA for meteorological data, and more recently you’d look at the European Union’s Copernicus programme. Data from commercial operators were often only sought if the free-to-access data from these suppliers did not meet your needs.
However, to quote Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin’. NASA, NOAA and Copernicus are buying, or intending to buy, data from commercial operators.

However, as with many activities there are often precedents. For example, the SeaWiFS mission was built to NASA’s specifications and launched in 1997. It was owned by the commercial organisation Orbital Sciences Corporation and NASA conducted a ‘data-buy’. They’ve moved back in this direction last month as NASA issued a Request for Information for US companies interested in participating in the Earth Observations from Private Sector Small Satellite Constellations Pilot. The aim of this programme is to identify commercial organisations collecting EO data relating to Essential Climate Variables (ECV), and then to evaluate whether this would be a cost effective approach to gathering data rather than, or alongside, launching their own satellites.

To interest NASA the companies need to have a constellation of at least three satellites in a non-geostationary orbits, and the ECV dataset will need to include details of both instrument calibration and processing techniques used. Initially, NASA plans to provide this data to researchers to undertake the evaluation. According to Space News, 11 responses to the request had been received. Discussions will take place with responding companies over the next month and it’s anticipated orders will be placed in March 2018.

NOAA is another US agency looking to the private small satellite sector through their Commercial Weather Data pilot programme. To supplement their own data collections they’ve already purchased GPS radio occupation data and are planning to buy both microwave sounding and radiometry data.

Not everyone is aware that the Copernicus Programme also purchases data from commercial sources as part of its Contributing Missions Programme. Essentially, if data is not available for any reason from the Sentinel satellites, then the equivalent data is sought from one of 30 current contributing missions which include other international partners such as NASA, but also commercial providers.

Whilst part of the drive behind this approach is to ensure data continuity, in the US the backdrop has a more long term concern with President Trump’s intention to move NASA away from EO to focus efforts on deep space exploration. It’s not been fully confirmed yet, but there is due to be a Congress budget discussion later this week and if approved it could mean the loss of the following four NASA missions:

• Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) satellite
• Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3)
• Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) Pathfinder
• Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR)

Whilst buying data from commercial providers may offer opportunities, it also has a number of challenges including how to buy this whilst maintaining their commitment to free-to-access data, and with the shorter lifespans of small satellites the increased pressure on calibration and validation work.

It’s clear that things are evolving in the EO market and the private sector is coming much more to the fore as a primary data supplier to researchers, national and international bodies.

Four Key Earth Observation Trends For 2018

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972.
Image Credit: NASA

This week we’re looking at this year’s key trends in Earth Observation (EO) that you need to know.

Rise of the Data Buckets!
EO data is big! Anyone who has tried to process EO data knows the issues of downloading and storing large files, and as more and more data becomes available these challenges will grow. Amazon recognised this issue and set up Amazon Web Services which automatically downloads all freely available data such as Copernicus and Landsat, offering people who want to process data a platform where they don’t have to download the data – for a price!

The European Commission also picked up on this and awarded four commercial contracts at the end of last year to establish Copernicus Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) which will offer scalable processing platforms for the development of value-added products and services.

The four successful DIAS consortiums are led by Serco Europe, Creotech Instruments, ATOS Integration & Airbus Defence and Space respectively, and a fifth DIAS is planned to be established by EUMETSAT. It’s hoped this will kick-start the greater use and exploitation of Copernicus data.

Continued Growth of Data
There are some exciting EO launches planned this year continuing to increase the amount of data available. Earlier this week China launched the last two satellites of the high resolution optical SuperView constellation. In addition, some of the key larger satellites going into orbit this year include:

  • ESA’s Sentinel-3B and its Aeolus wind mission.
  • NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-on (GRACE-FO) and the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2).
  • Japan’s Advanced Satellite with New system Architecture for Observation (ASNARO 2) which is x-band SAR radar satellite with a 1 m ground resolution.
  • NOAA’s GOES-S is the second of four upgraded weather observatories.

In addition, as we described last week, cubesats will continue to have regular launches. We are still a long way from the high watershed of EO data!

SaaS Will Become The Norm
The rise of the data buckets will encourage the Software-as-a-service (SaaS) approach to EO to become the norm. Companies will develop products and services and offer them to customers on a platform via the internet, rather than the historic bespoke application approach. For companies this will be a more effective way of using their resources and will allow them to better leverage products and services. For the customers, it will enable them greater use EO and geospatial data without the need for expert knowledge.

Pixalytics is due to launch its own Product Portal at the Data.Space 2018 conference at the end of this month.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)
AI is becoming more and more important to EO. Part of this is the natural development of AI, however certain EO tasks are far more suited to AI. For example, change detection, identification of new artefacts in imagery, etc. These aspects have a base image and looking for differences, computers can do this much quicker than any human researcher. Although, it’s also true that humans can see artefacts much more easily than you can program a computer to identify them. Therefore, these AI applications are strongly dependent on training datasets created by humans.

However, things are now moving beyond these simple AI tasks and it’s becoming an integral part of EO products and services. For example, last year Microsoft launched their AI for Earth programme, support by a $50 m investment, which will deploy their cloud computing, AI and other technology to researchers around the world to help develop new solutions for the agriculture, biodiversity, climate change, and water challenges on the planet.

These are a snapshot of our view of the key trends. What do you think? Have we missed anything? Let us know.

Earth Observation’s Flying Start to 2018

Simulated NovaSAR-S data.

Earth Observation (EO) is taking off again in 2018 with a scheduled launch of 31 satellites next Friday, 12th January, from a single rocket by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The launch will be on the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-40) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, India. ISRO has history of multiple launches, setting the world record in February 2017 with 104 satellites in one go.

The main payload next week will be Cartosat-2F, also known as Cartosat-2ER. It is the next satellite in a cartographic constellation which focuses on land observation. It carries two instruments, a high resolution multi-spectral imager and a panchromatic camera. It’s data is intended to be used in urban and rural applications, coastal land use, regulation and utility management.

At Pixalytics we’re particularly excited about the Carbonite-2 cubesat built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) which is on this launch. .

Carbonite-2 is a prototype mission to demonstrate the ability to acquire colour video images from space. It has been developed by Earth-i and SSTL, and carries an imaging system capable of delivering images with a spatial resolution of 1 m and colour video clips with a swath width of 5 km. Earth-i have already ordered five satellites from SSTL, as the first element of a constellation that will provide colour video and still imagery for the globe enabling the moving objects such as cars, ships or aircraft to be filmed. These satellites are planned for launch in 2019.

However, this isn’t the only cubesat with an EO interest on next week’s launch. In addition, there are:

  • KAUSAT 5 (Korea Aviation University Satellite) will observe the Earth using an infrared camera and measure the amount of radiation from its Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
  • Parikshit is a student satellite project from the Manipal Institute of Technology in India that carries a thermal infrared camera, using 7.5-13.5 µm wavelengths, and will be used to monitor urban heat islands, sea surface temperature and the thermal distribution of clouds around the Indian subcontinent.
  • Landmapper-BC3, a commercial satellite from Astro Digital in the USA to provide multispectral imagery at 22 m spatial resolution with a swath width of 220 km
  • ICEYE-X1 is a SAR microsatellite from the Finnish company ICEYE which is designed to provide near real-time SAR imagery using the S-Band. ICEYE is a recent start-up company who have raised $17 m in venture capital funding in the last few years. They hope to have a global imaging constellation by the end of 2020.

Amongst the remaining cubesats, there are a couple of really intriguing ones:

  • CNUSail 1 (Chungnam National University Sail) is a solar sail experiment from Chungnam National University in South Korea. It aims to successfully deploy a solar sail in LEO and then to de-orbit using the sail membrane as a drag-sail. There has been a lot of discussion around solar sails from propulsion systems through to mechanisms to clear space debris, so it will be fascinating to see the outcome.
  • IRVINE01 is the culmination of a STEM project started in 1999 in six public high schools in Irvine, California, which has given students the experience of building, testing and launching a cubesat to inspire the next generation of space scientists. This is a fantastic project!

We’re also really excited about the launch of the NovaSAR-S cubesat, which was also originally planned to be on this launch (as reflected in the first version of this blog). It is going to be launched later this year. NovaSAR-S, also built by SSTL, is of particular interested to Pixalytics as we’ve previously been involved in a project to simulate NovaSAR-S data and so we’re excited to see what the actual data looks like. NovaSAR-S is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission using the S-Band, which will operate in a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 580 km. It has four imaging modes:

  • ScanSAR mode with a swath width of 100 km at 20 m spatial resolution.
  • Maritime mode with a swath width of > 400 km and a spatial resolution of 6 m across the track and 13.7m along the track.
  • Stripmap mode with a swath width of 15-20 km and a spatial resolution of 6 m.
  • ScanSAR wide mode with a swath width of 140km and a spatial resolution of 30 m.

The data will be used for applications including flooding, disaster monitoring, forestry, ship tracking, oil spill, land cover use and classification, crop monitoring and ice monitoring. We’ve going to keep an eye out for its launch!

This is just the start of 2018, and we hope it’s piqued your interest in EO as it’s going to be an exciting year!

Have you read the top Pixalytics blogs of 2017?

World Cloud showing top 100 words from Pixalytics 2017 blogs

In our final blog of the year, we’re looking back at our most popular posts of the last twelve months. Have you read them all?

Of the top ten most read blogs, nine were actually written in previous years. These were:

You’ll notice that this list is dominated by our annual reviews of the number of satellites, and Earth observation satellites, orbiting the Earth. It often surprises us to see where these blogs are quoted and we’ve been included in articles on websites for Time Magazine, Fortune Magazine and the New Statesman to name a few!

So despite only being published in November this year coming in as the fourth most popular blog of the year was, unsurprisingly:

For posts published in 2017, the other nine most popular were:

2017 has been a really successful one for our website. The number of the views for the year is up by 75%, whilst the number of unique visitors has increased by 92%!

Whilst hard work, we do enjoy writing our weekly blog – although staring at a blank screen on a Wednesday morning without any idea of what we’ll publish a few hours later can be daunting!

We’re always delighted at meetings and conferences when people come up and say they read the blog. It’s nice to know that we’re read both within our community, as well as making a small contribution to informing and educating people outside the industry.

Thanks for reading this year, and we hope we can catch your eye again next year.

We’d like to wish everyone a Happy New Year, and a very successful 2018!

Merry Christmas!

UK at night. November 2017 monthly composite from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite,(Day/Night Band). Image and Data processing courtesy of Earth Observation Group, NOAA/NCEI.



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