About Sam

Scientist and Director

Big Data From Space

Last week I attended the 2017 Conference on Big Data from Space (BiDS’17) that was held in Toulouse, France. The conference was co-organised by the European Space Agency (ESA), the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC), and the European Union Satellite Centre (SatCen). It aimed to bring together people from multiple disciplines to stimulate the exploitation Earth Observation (EO) data collected in space.

The event started on Tuesday morning with keynotes from the various co-organising space organisations. Personally, I found the talk by Andreas Veispak, from the European Commission’s (EC) DG GROW department which is responsible for EU policy on the internal market, industry, entrepreneurship and SMEs, particularly interesting. Andreas has a key involvement in the Copernicus and Galileo programmes and described the Copernicus missions as the first building block for creating an ecosystem, which has positioned Europe as a global EO power through its “full, free and open” data policy.

The current Sentinel satellite missions will provide data continuity until at least 2035 with huge amounts of data generated, e.g., when all the Sentinel satellite missions are operational over 10 petabytes of data per year will be produced. Sentinel data has already been a huge success with current users exceeding what was expected by a factor of 10 or 20 and every product has been downloaded at least 10 times. Now, the key challenge is to support these users by providing useful information alongside the data.

The ESA presentation by Nicolaus Hanowski continued the user focus by highlighting that there are currently over 100 000 registered Copernicus data hub users. Nicolaus went on to describe that within ESA success is now being measured by use of the data for societal needs, e.g., the sustainable development goals, rather than just the production of scientific data. Therefore, one of the current aims is reduce the need for downloading by having a mutualised underpinning structure, i.e. the Copernicus Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) that will become operational in the second quarter of 2018, which will allow users to run their computer code on the data without the need for downloading. The hope is that this will allow users to focus on what they can do with the data, rather than worrying around storing it!

Charles Macmillan from JRC described their EO Data and Processing Platform (JEODPP) which is a front end based around the Jupyter Notebook that allows users to ask questions using visualisations and narrative text, instead of just though direct programming. He also noted that increasingly the data needed for policy and decision making is held by private organisations rather than government bodies.

The Tuesday afternoon was busy as I chaired the session on Information Generation at Scale. We had around 100 people who heard some great talks on varied subjects such as mass processing of Sentinel & Landsat data for mapping human settlements, 35 years of AVHRR data and large scale flood frequency maps using SAR data.

‘Application Of Earth Observation To A Ugandan Drought And Flood Mitigation Service’ poster

I presented a poster at the Wednesday evening session, titled “Application Of Earth Observation To A Ugandan Drought And Flood Mitigation Service”. We’re part of a consortium working on this project which is funded via the UK Space Agency’s International Partnership Programme. It’s focus is on providing underpinning infrastructure for the Ugandan government so that end users, such as farmers, can benefit from more timely and accurate information – delivered through a combination of EO, modelling and ground-based measurements.

It was interesting to hear Grega Milcinski from Sinergise discuss a similar approach to users from the lessons they learnt from building the Sentinel Hub. They separated the needs of science, business and end users. With their platform focusing on scientific and business users, they’d chosen not to target end users because of the tough requirements such as the demand for response times of less than two seconds. It’s quite a sobering to hear as we’re hoping to move towards targeting these end users!

There were some key technology themes that came of the presentations at the conference:

  • Jupyter notebooks were popular for frontend visualisation and data analytics, so users just need to know some basic python to handle large and complex datasets.
  • Making use of cloud computing using tools such as Docker and Apache Spark for running multiple instances of code with integrated parallel processing.
  • Raw data and processing on the fly: for both large datasets within browsers and by having the metadata stored so you can quickly query before committing to processing.
  • Analysis ready data in data cubes, i.e. the data has been processed to a level where remote sensing expertise isn’t so critical.

It was a great thought provoking conference. If you’d like to get more detail on what was presented then a book of extended abstracts is available here. The next event is planned for 19-21 February 2019 in Munich, Germany and I’d highly recommend it!

To TEDx Speaking and Beyond!

Back in April I received an invitation to speak at the ‘One Step Beyond’ TEDx event organised at the National Space Centre in Leicester, with my focus on the Blue Economy and Earth Observation (EO).

We’ve been to a few TEDx events in the past and they’ve always been great, and so I was excited to have the opportunity to join this community. Normally, I’m pretty relaxed about public speaking. I spend a lot of time thinking about what I’m going to say, but don’t assemble my slides until a couple of days beforehand. This approach has developed in part because I used to lecture – where I got used to talking for a while with a few slides – but also because I always like to take some inspiration from the overall mood of the event I’m talking at. This can be through hearing other speakers, attending workshops or even just walking around the local area.

TEDx, however, was different. There was a need to have the talk ready early for previewing and feedback, alongside producing stunning visuals and having a key single message. So, for a change, I started with a storyboard.

My key idea was to get across the sense of wonder I and many other scientists share in observing the oceans from space, whilst also emphasising that anyone can get involved in protecting this natural resource. I echoed the event title by calling my talk “Beyond the blue ocean” as many people think of the ocean as just a blue waterbody. However, especially from space, we can see the beauty, and complexity, of colour variations influenced by the microscopic life and substances dissolved and suspended within it.

I began with an with an image called the ‘Pale Blue Dot’ that was taken by Voyager 1 at a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth, and then went with well-known ‘Blue Marble’ image before zooming into what we see from more conventional EO satellites. I also wanted to take the audience beyond just optical wavelengths and so displayed microwave imagery from Sentinel-1 that’s at a similar spatial resolution to my processed 15 m resolution Sentinel-2 data that was also shown.

Dr Samantha Lavender speaking at the One Step Beyond TEDx event in Leicester. Photo courtesy of TEDxLeicester

The satellite imagery included features such as wind farms, boats and phytoplankton blooms I intended to discuss. However, this didn’t quite to go to plan on my practice run through! The talk was in the planetarium at the National Space Centre, which meant the screen was absolutely huge – as you can see in the image to the right. However, with the lights on in the room the detail in the images was really difficult to see. The solution for the talk itself was to have the planetarium in darkness and myself picked out by two large spotlights, meaning that the image details were visible to the audience but I couldn’t see the audience myself.

The evening itself took place on the 21st September, and with almost two hundred in the audience I was up first. I was very happy with how it went and the people who spoke to me afterwards said they were inspired by what they’d seen. You can see for yourself, as the talk can be found here on the TEDx library. Let me know what you think!

I was followed by two other fantastic speakers who gave inspiring presentations and these are also up on the TEDx Library. Firstly, Dr Emily Shuckburgh, Deputy Head of Polar Oceans team at British Antarctic Survey discussed “How to conduct a planetary health check”; and she was followed by Corentin Guillo, CEO and Founder of Bird.i, who spoke about “Space entrepreneurship, when thinking outside the box is not enough”.

The whole event was hugely enjoyable and the team at TEDx Leicester did an amazing job of organising it. It was good to talk to people after the event, and it was fantastic that seventy percent of the audience were aged between 16 and 18. We need to do much more of this type of outreach activities to educate and inspire the next generation of scientists. Of course, for me, the day also means that I can now add TEDx Speaker to my biography!

Marine Zulu Gathering

Looking out from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, taken on the 1st October 2017

This week I’m at the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research (IMBeR) IMBIZO5 event at the Woods Hall Oceanographic Institute. IMBIZO is a Zulu word meaning a meeting or gathering called by a traditional leader and this week a group of marine scientists have heeded the call.

The fifth meeting in the IMBIZO series is focussing on Marine Biosphere Research for a Sustainable Ocean: Linking ecosystems, future states and resource management. Its aim is help understand, quantify and compare the historic and present structure and functioning of linked ocean and human systems to predict and project changes including developing scenarios and options for securing or transitioning towards ocean sustainability.

Woods Hole is located in the US state of Massachusetts. It is well-known centre of excellence in marine research and the world’s largest private, non-profit oceanographic research institution. Despite my career travels, it was somewhere I had never visited before. So this was a great opportunity to see a place I had read a lot about, and to meet people from a variety of marine disciplines.

After my Saturday morning flight to Boston, my first challenge was to find the fantastically named ‘Peter Pan Bus’ for the two hour drive to Falmouth, a town near the Woods Hole Institute. Regular readers will spot that this is the second Falmouth I’ve visited this summer, as I gave talk in the Cornish version in July. It’s actually slightly odd to hear familiar place names such as Plymouth, Barnstaple and Taunton in a different country. Carrying my poster also singled me out as an IMBIZO attendee, Lisa stopped to give me a lift to hotel as I walked through the town – not sure that would happen back in the UK!

I needed to be up early on Sunday as we had an Infographics workshop led by Indi Hodgson-Johnston from the University of Tasmania. We learnt about how to work through the creative process, starting with choosing a theme through to defining 4 to 8 factoids (1 to 2 sentences with a single message) to finally bringing the factoids and accompanying images together into the infographic.

Interestingly, Indi highlighted that only 20% of the people who start watching a video on social media are still watching after 15 seconds! In addition, most watch without sound. The key message for me was to make very short videos with subtitles. Or better still make infographics.

The workshop itself began on Monday with three keynotes. The first by Edward Allison, of the University of Washington, focussed on the limits of prediction and started by defining terms and their time scales:

  • Forecasts: from minutes to weeks e.g. weather forecasting
  • Predictions: from months to years e.g. climate variability
  • Scenarios: front decades to centuries e.g. climate change

As we go from forecasts to predictions uncertainty increases, and further still when we move to scenarios. Therefore, we need to be clear about the limits of what’s possible. Secondly, whilst we’ve become good at understanding bio-chemical and physical processes, uncertainty grows as we move to modelling ecosystems and human interactions.

Mary Ann Moran from the University of Georgia spoke about the ‘Metabolic diversity and evolution in marine biogeochemical cycling and ocean ecosystem processes’ and emphasised the linkage between phytoplankton and microbes, and how omics (fields such as metabolomics, (meta)-proteomics and -transcriptomics) can help us to understand this complex relationship.

The final keynote was by Andre Punt from the University of Washington on ‘Fisheries Management Strategy Evaluation’. It looked at how we move from data on fish catches to deciding what a sustainable quota is for managing fishing stocks. Management strategy evaluation involves running multiple simulations to compare the relative effectiveness of achieving management objectives i.e., a “fisheries flight simulator”. Given the different stakeholders in this debate will often have opposing requirements; the wrong choice can have catastrophic effects on either fish populations or livelihoods. Hence, this approach often involves finding the least worst solution.

The workshop streams began in the afternoon and I’m in one focussing on ‘Critical Constraints on Prediction’. We all gave 3 minute lightening talks to introduce ourselves and started the discussion on the topic of uncertainties and how these can be reduced in future projections.

Exploring this topic over the next few days is going to be really interesting!

Supporting Soil Fertility From Space

Sentinel-2 pseudo-true colour composite from 2016 with a Kompsat-3 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product from 2015 inset. Sentinel data courtesy of ESA/Copernicus.

Last Tuesday I was at the academic launch event for the Tru-Nject project at Cranfield University. Despite the event’s title, it was in fact an end of project meeting. Pixalytics has been involved in the project since July 2015, when we agreed to source and process high resolution satellite Earth Observation (EO) imagery for them.

The Tru-Nject project is funded via Innovate UK. It’s official title is ‘Tru-Nject: Proximal soil sensing based variable rate application of subsurface fertiliser injection in vegetable/ combinable crops’. The focus is on modelling soil fertility within fields, to enable fertiliser to be applied in varying amounts using point-source injection technology which reduces the nitrogen loss to the atmosphere when compared with spreading fertiliser on the soil surface.

To do this the project created soil fertility maps from a combination of EO products, physical sampling and proximal soil sensing – where approximately 15 000 georeferenced hyperspectral spectra are collected using an instrument connected to a tractor. These fertility maps are then interpreted by an agronomist, who decides on the relative application of fertiliser.

Initial results have shown that applying increased fertiliser to areas of low fertility improves overall yield when compared to applying an equal amount of fertiliser everywhere, or applying more fertiliser to high yield areas.

Pixalytics involvement in the work focussed on acquiring and processing, historical, and new, sub 5 metre optical satellite imagery for two fields, near Hull and York. We have primarily acquired data from the Kompsat satellites operated by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), supplemented with WorldView data from DigitalGlobe. Once we’d acquired the imagery, we processed it to:

  • remove the effects of the atmosphere, termed atmospheric correction, and then
  • converted them to maps of vegetation greenness

The new imagery needed to coincide with a particular stage of crop growth, which meant the satellite data acquisition period was narrow. This led to a pleasant surprise for Dave George, Tru-Nject Project Manager, who said, “I never believed I’d get to tell a satellite what to do.’ To ensure that we collected data on specific days we did task the Kompsat satellites each year.

Whilst we were quite successful with the tasking the combination of this being the UK, and the fact that the fields were relatively small, meant that some of the images were partly affected by cloud. Where this occurred we gap-filled with Copernicus Sentinel-2 data, it has coarser spatial resolution (15m), but more regular acquisitions.

In addition, we also needed to undertake vicarious adjustment to ensure that we produced consistent products over time whilst the data came from different sensors with different specifications. As we cannot go to the satellite to measure its calibration, vicarious adjustment is a technique which uses ground measurements and algorithms to not only cross-calibrate the data, but also adjusts for errors in the atmospheric correction.

An example of the work is at the top, which shows a Sentinel-2 pseudo-true colour composite from 2016 with a Kompsat-3 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product from 2015 inset. The greener the NDVI product the more green the vegetation is, although the two datasets were collected in different years so the planting within the field varies.

We’ve really enjoyed working with Stockbridge Technology Centre Ltd (STC), Manterra Ltd, and Cranfield University, who were the partners in the project. Up until last week all the work was done via telephone and email, and so it was great to finally meet them in-person, hear about the successful project and discuss ideas for the future.

AgriTech Seeds Start to Grow in Cornwall

On Monday I attended the Jump Start AgriTech event hosted by the South West Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications at the Tremough Innovation Centre on the University of Exeter’s Penryn campus near Falmouth in Cornwall. As the name suggests the one day event covered innovations in AgriTech with a particular focus on what is, or could be, happening in the South West.

The day began with a series of short presentations and Paul Harris, Rothamsted Research, was up first on their Open Access Farm Platform. North Wyke Farm in Devon has been equipped with a variety of sensors and instruments to understand the effects of different farming practices. Of particular interest to me was their analysis of run-off, weather monitoring and soil moisture every 15 minutes; this is a great resource for satellite product validation.

I was up next talking about Earth Observation (EO) Satellite Data for AgriTech. Having seen people overpromise and oversell EO data too many times, I began with getting people to think about what they were trying to achieve, before looking at the technology. The circle of starting questions, on the right, is how I begin with potential clients. If satellite EO is the right technology from these answers, then you can start considering the combinations of both optical/microwave data and free-to-access and commercial data. I went on to show the different types of satellite imagery and what the difference in spatial resolution looks like within an agriculture setting.

I was followed by Vladimir Stolikovic, Satellite Applications Catapult, who focused on the Internet of Things and how it’s important to have sensor network data collected and communicated, with satellite broadband being used in conjunction with mobile phones and WiFi coverage.

Our last talk was by Dr Karen Anderson, University of Exeter, who looked at how drones can capture more than imagery. I was particularly intrigued by the ‘structure from motion photogrammetry’ technique which allows heights to be determined from multiple images; such that for a much lower cost, you can create something similar to what is acquired from a Lidar or laser scanning instrument. Also, by focusing on extracting height, data can be collected in conditions where there’s variable amounts of light, such as under clouds, and it doesn’t requirement high accuracy radiometric calibration.

After coffee, case studies were presented on farming applications:

  • VirtualVet – Collecting data on animal health and drug use digitally, via mobile apps, so paper records don’t become out of data and data can be collated to gain greater insights.
  • Steve Chapman, SC Nutrition Ltd, talked about improving milk production by making sure dried food is optimally prepared – large pieces of dried sweetcorn are digested less well, and a lower nutritional value is extracted from them.
  • The delightfully named, Farm Crap App from FoAM Kernow, aims to encourage farmers to spread manure rather than use artificial fertilizer. Farmers tended to go for the latter as it is easier to calculate the effects, and so having advice, regulations and the important calculations in a phone app, rather than in paper tables, should help them use manure.
  • Caterina Santachiara, ABACO, describing their siti4FARMER solution which is a cloud-computing based platform that includes data which scales from the field to farm and large land areas, with individual customisation so that users can easily see what they need to know.
  • Finally, Glyn Jones from AVANTI, talked about how farmers can stay connected to the internet, and tech support, while out in their fields. This sounds straightforward, but none of the current technologies work well enough – mainly due to the fact that fields aren’t flat! So a new technological area of investigation is ‘white space’ – these are frequencies allocated to broadcasting services, but left unused in particular geographical locations as buffers. The availability varies from location to location, but it is available to lower-powered devices.

After lunch, there were some presentations on Agritech funding opportunities from Innovate UK, AgriTech Cornwall and the South West Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications. The day concluded with a facilitated session where small groups explored a variety of different ideas in more detail.

It was a really good day, and shows that there is real potential for AgriTech to grow in the South West.

UKSEDS National Student Space Conference 2017

The 2017 UKSEDS National Student Space Conference took place last weekend at the University of Exeter and I was delighted to be asked to give a presentation.

UKSEDS, the acronym of the ‘UK Students for the Exploration and Development of Space’, is a charity dedicated to running events for space students and graduates. It is the UK branch of global community who have the aim of promoting space, space exploration and research.

The National Student Space Conference is in its 29th year, and 2017 was the first time I’d attended. I began the Saturday morning with a panel discussion on Exploration versus Exploitation with Dr David Parker from the European Space Agency, Cathrine Armour who leads the South West Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications and Andy Bacon from Thales Alenia Space UK.

One of the key points raised in the panel surrounded the topic’s title, and that it wasn’t a contest between exploration and exploitation, but rather that exploration is generally followed up with exploitation e.g. even in the 19th and 20th century explorations were politically motivated. However exploration is risky, and so it may be difficult to produce favourable outcomes that can be exploited.

Traditionally, commercial organisations were risk averse and therefore exploration has often been supported by public bodies. The exploitation came later from commercial organisations, but there’s now an increased appetite for risk through venture and crowd funding with space being a particular focus.

We also have hindsight of how we’ve altered planet Earth, and so need to apply this to space where we’ve completed our first survey of the solar system. Exploitation may not be far away as there are companies already aiming to mine asteroids, for example. So alongside investing in science and technology, we also need to invest in the governance to ensure that any future exploitation is undertaken responsibly.

Closer to Earth, it can be considered that we’ve not yet fully exploiting the potential of orbiting satellites. For example, we could use them for generating solar energy as a twenty four hour resource. So whilst exploration does tend to proceed exploitation, in fact it is probably more accurate to say we loop between the two with each providing feedback into the other.

My presentation session was between the coffee break and lunch. I was last up and followed Cathrine Armour, Matt Cosby from Goonhilly Earth Station Ltd and Dr Lucy Berthoud from the University of Bristol & Thales Alenia Space UK. My presentation was on “Innovations in Earth observation” and can be found here.

I particularly enjoyed Lucy’s talk where she posed the question – Is there life on Mars? She also had a crowd pleasing set of practical experiments involving dry ice and a rock from a local beach, which was a bit daunting to follow! Whilst Lucy concluded that Mars has the elements needed for life to exist in terms of nutrients, an energy source and liquid water, any life would likely to be microscopic.

However, there are large costs associated with us visiting Mars to confirm this. Ignoring the obvious cost of the flight, the decontamination aspect is huge. As mission planners have to avoid both forward and backward contamination, i.e., us contaminating Mars and the material brought back contaminating the Earth. This brings us back around to the morning panel and why exploration always tends to come first, supported by national or international bodies.

Overall, I had a great time at the Conference and would wholly recommend any students who have interest in space join UKSEDS. Membership is free and it can give you access to great events, opportunities and contacts. You can join here!

Perspectives from the 12th Appleton Space Conference

Sam presenting at the 2016 Appleton Space Conference. Image courtesy of Deimos UK.

Sam presenting at the 2016 Appleton Space Conference. Image courtesy of Deimos UK.

Last week I attended the 12th Appleton Space Conference, it was the first time I’d been to one of these conferences, and I was excited to be giving a talk. It was hosted by RAL Space at the Harwell Campus.

After the welcome, the day started with a talk from Ross James (Deputy CEO at the UK Space Agency). He’s new to the space community, and so has enjoyed learning to understand it more fully. It was interesting to hear him reinforce the conclusion that the space industry’s value-added multiplier is two, but also that the industry needs to be more regionally and user focused.

Talks then followed by members of European Centre for Space Applications and Telecommunications (ECSAT, the UK’s ESA centre) and the Harwell Campus. I was surprised hear the comparison that the Harwell Campus site is roughly equivalent to the size of the City of London. Whilst Harwell doesn’t yet have any of the iconic tall buildings of the City, it does mean it has plenty of space to grow – with plans to increase the campus to 5 500 jobs by 2020; although it was acknowledged that an upgrade of the underpinning infrastructure would be needed to support this.

Sam presenting at the 2016 Appleton Space Conference. Image courtesy of Sara Huntingdon, Space for Smarter Government Programme.

Sam presenting at the 2016 Appleton Space Conference. Image courtesy of Sara Huntingdon, Space for Smarter Government Programme.

After the break we swapped to the topics of growth and innovation. The Autumn Statement had a strong focus on creating an environment for backing winners, with Innovation UK targeted on turning scientific excellence into economic input and scaling up high potential businesses. Two quotes from Tim Just (Innovate UK) that particularly resonated with me:

  • Research is the transformation of money into knowledge; and
  • Innovation transforms it back again.

There was also a debate on whether the space industry is reaching the threshold for a tipping point as outlined in Malcolm Gladwell’s criteria – i.e., where a slow moving trend reaches critical mass and causes a larger change such as the use of space applications and technologies becoming the everyday norm. The last two talks before lunch were on the development of new instruments – including the recently launched Sentinel-3 mission.

The first afternoon session was on understanding scientific advances. We started off by discussing exoplanets (a planet which orbits a star outside the solar system), followed by detecting signals using ground based radars and then understanding gravitational waves. My own talk on harnessing the increasing volumes of Earth Observation (EO) data came at the end of this session. I focused on discussing how there has been a massive change in the amount of available EO data with the need to bring the abilities of computers and humans together to best use this wealth of information.

The slides from my presentation can be found here. It was interesting to see some of the messages people took away from my talk on Twitter such as:

  • The availability of free satellite data is revolutionising remote sensing
  • We have to make the most out of the large quantity of data made available by Earth Observation

After lots of people coming to talk to me during coffee it was great to see Paul Jerram from e2V showing what EO sensors look like, ranging from much larger version of the snapshot imagers found in smart phones to time delay imagers that collect the signal over a period of time so we can have very high resolution imagery. For example, the planet Mars is being imaged at 30 cm resolution. Prof Martin Wooster (Kings College London) focused on biomass burning emissions. Research has shown that the Malaysian fires in 2015, linked to El Nino, contributed to 15% of the global carbon dioxide increases that year but also to thousands of deaths due to the air pollution they caused.

Our day of talks concluded with a keynote lecture by Tim Peake, giving a personal insight into his mission into Space onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an afternoon speaker I had a front row seat, and so I’m easily spotted on Tim’s room selfie! It was interesting to hear that Tim found adjusting to gravity back on Earth more difficult than weightlessness in space. How much he enjoyed his time on the ISS was obvious when he said he’d be happy to go again as the journey into space was particularly exhilarating.

Whilst aboard the ISS Tim used his limited amount of spare time on Sundays to take photographs of the Earth. Anyone who followed Tim on Twitter will have seen some of these, but he has also now brought out a book of these pictures titled ‘Hello, is this planet Earth? My View from the International Space Station’. An interesting footnote, although not from the conference, is that the UK has just purchased the capsule Tim used to get to, and from, space and it will go on display in the Science Museum next year.

Overall, it was a fantastic day jam packed with interesting, exciting and inspiring discussions about space!

Simplification in the Geospatial Industry

GEO Business 2016 at Business Design Centre, London.

GEO Business 2016 at Business Design Centre, London.

It’s May which means it’s GEO Business time at the Business Design Centre in London. Last year Pixalytics used this event to dip our collective toe into exhibiting, and this year we’ve decided to be the other side and are attending as participants. Louisa and I are here to catch up with what’s happening in the geospatial industry through the conference presentations, the workshop programme and visiting the exhibition stands.

I attended the first conference session which began with a keynote from Tom Cheesewright, Applied Futurist, which highlighted the importance of location in bringing together the physical and digital world. This led into a presentation from Ed Parsons, Geospatial Technologist from Google, which discussed the changing face of this industry. In particular, he discussed the importance of ensuring we simplify our interfaces so users don’t have to know the detail of how things work, and are only provided with relevant information they want.

Gary Gale from What3Words applies this simplification approach to positioning. In his presentation he argued that address based systems aren’t unique and coordinate systems aren’t easy for people to understand. Therefore, What3Words have proposed a naming system whereby every 3 metre square on the Earth, is referenced by just three words. For example, the Business Design Centre has a position of begins.pulse.status under this system.

A third presentation in this session was given by Prof. Gianvito Lanzolla, from Cass Business School, and discussed what business models may look like in the future. He explained that digitization leads to connectivity and reminded everyone that phones and cameras only converged in 2002. This change is now moving into data, where connected products are becoming increasingly important: with trust and speed being key attributes.

The panel debate discussed the importance of disruptors for driving innovation forward, and that markets mature over time so that only the best offerings remain. There were also thoughts on privacy as people are happy to provide locational information when they wanted a service to know where they are, but that future services need to focus on the location of the individual rather than their provided address.

This theme of simplification and ensuring that products are fit for purpose was picked up in the post-lunch session where John Taylor, from the Land Registry, described how the MapSearch product for deeds was developed. Instead of trying to develop a complex interface with all possible features, they started with a stripped down Minimum Viable Product. John highlighted the importance of discussing the solution with the users at every iteration, making sure the features included were wanted and would be used. This approach resulted in a 65% reduction in manual searches, which has reduced staff costs and saved money for customers as the manual search for deeds was charged, whilst MapSearch is available for free.

Walking around the exhibition provided a good opportunity to catch up with colleagues, and see what was trending. It was noticeable that instrumentation was accompanied by what felt like an increased percentage of stands linked to UAVs (or drones) and data analysis / web mapping companies.

As usual with conferences my head is buzzing with ideas and things to take back to Pixalytics. In a recent blog we discussed the start of our journey to develop our own products and services, and the themes of simplification and fit for purpose are certainly going to feed into our thinking!

Flooding Forecasting & Mapping

Sentinel-1 data for York overlaid in red with Pixalytics flood mapping layer based on Giustarini approach for the December 2015 flooding event. Data courtesy of ESA.

Sentinel-1 data for York overlaid in red with Pixalytics flood mapping layer based on Giustarini approach for the December 2015 flooding event. Data courtesy of ESA.

Media headlines this week have shouted that the UK is in for a sizzling summer with temperature in the nineties, coupled with potential flooding in August due to the La Niña weather process.

The headlines were based on the UK Met Office’s three month outlook for contingency planners. Unfortunately, when we looked at the information ourselves it didn’t exactly say what the media headlines claimed! The hot temperatures were just one of a number of potential scenarios for the summer. As any meteorologist will tell you, forecasting a few days ahead is difficult, forecasting a three months ahead is highly complex!

Certainly, La Niña is likely to have an influence. As we’ve previously written, this year has been influenced by a significant El Niño where there are warmer ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific. La Niña is the opposite phase, with colder ocean temperatures in that region. For the UK this means there is a greater chance of summer storms, which would mean more rain and potential flooding. However, there are a lot of if’s!

At the moment our ears prick up with any mention of flooding, as Pixalytics has just completed a proof of concept project, in association with the Environment Agency, looking to improve operational flood water extent mapping information during flooding incidents.

The core of the project was to implement recent scientific research published by Matgen et al. (2011), Giustarini et al. (2013) and Greifeneder et al. (2014). So it was quite exciting to find out that Laura Guistarini was giving a presentation on flooding during the final day of last week’s ESA Living Planets Symposium in Prague – I wrote about the start of the Symposium in our previous blog.

Laura’s presentation, An Automatic SAR-Based Flood Mapping Algorithm Combining Hierarchical Tiling and Change Detection, was interesting as when we started to implement the research on Sentinel-1 data, we also came to the conclusion that the data needed to be split into tiles. It was great to hear Laura present, and I managed to pick her brains a little at the end of the session. At the top of the blog is a Sentinel-1 image of York, overlaid with a Pixalytics derived flood map in red for the December 2015 flooding based on the research published by Laura

The whole session on flooding, which took place on the last morning of the Symposium, was interesting. The presentations also included:

  • the use of CosmoSkyMed data for mapping floods in forested areas within Finland.
  • extending flood mapping to consider Sentinel-1 InSAR coherence and polarimetric information.
  • an intercomparison of the processing systems developed at DLR.
  • development of operational flood mapping in Norway.

It was useful to understand where others were making progress with Sentinel-1 data, and how different processing systems were operating. It was also interesting that several presenters showed findings, or made comments, related to the double bounce experienced when a radar signal is reflected off not just the ground, but another structure such as a building or tree. Again it is something we needed to consider as we were particularly looking at urban areas.

The case study of our flood mapping project was published last week on the Space for Smarter Government Programme website as they, via UK Space Agency, using the Small Business Research Initiative supported by Innovate UK, funded the project.

We are continuing with our research, with the aim of having our own flood mapping product later this year – although the news that August may have flooding means we might have to quicken our development pace!

Living Planet Is Really Buzzing!

Living planet rotating global in the exhibition area, photo: S Lavender

Living planet rotating global in the exhibition area, photo: S Lavender

This week I’m at the 2016 European Space Agency’s Living Planet Symposium taking place in sunny Prague. I didn’t arrive until lunchtime on Monday and with the event already underway I hurried to the venue. First port of call was the European Association of Remote Sensing Companies (EARSC) stand as we’ve got copies of flyers and leaflets on their stand. Why not pop along and have look!

The current excitement and interest in Earth observation (EO) was obvious when I made my way towards the final sessions of the day. The Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 synergy presentations were packed out, all seats taken and people were crowding the door to watch!

I started with the Thematic Exploitation Platforms session. For a long time the remote sensing community has wanted more data, and now we’re receiving it in ever larger quantities e.g., the current Copernicus missions are generating terabytes of data daily. With the storage requirements this generates there is a lot of interest in the use of online platforms to hold data, and then you upload your code to it, or use tools provided by the platform, rather than everyone trying to download their own individual copies. It was interesting to compare and contrast the approaches taken with hydrology, polar, coastal, forestry and urban EO data.

Tuesday was always going to be my busiest day of the Symposium as I was chairing two sessions and giving a presentation. I had an early start as the 0800 session on Coastal Zones I was co-chairing alongside Bob Brewin –a former PhD student of mine! It was great to see people presenting their results using Sentinel-2. The spatial resolution, 10m for the highest resolution wavebands, allows us to see the detail of suspended sediment resuspension events and the 705 nm waveband can be used for phytoplankton; but we’d still like an ocean colour sensor at this spatial resolution!

In the afternoon I headed into European Climate Data Records, where there was an interesting presentation on a long time-series AVHRR above-land aerosol dataset where the AVHRR data is being vicariously calibrated using the SeaWiFS ocean colour sensor. Great to see innovation within the industry where sensors launched one set of applications can be reused in others. One thing that was emphasised by presenters in both this session, and the Coastal Zone one earlier, was the need to reprocess datasets to create improved data records.

My last session of the day was on Virtual Research, where I was both co-chairing and presenting. It returned to the theme of handling large datasets, and the presentations focused on building resources that make using EO data easier. This ranged from bringing in-situ and EO data together by standardising the formatting and metadata of the in-situ data, through community datasets for algorithm performance evaluation, to data cubes that bring all the data needed to answer specific questions together into a three- (or higher) dimensional array that means you don’t spend all your time trying to read different datasets versus ask questions of them. My own presentation focused on our involvement with the ESA funded E-Collaboration for Earth Observation (E-CEO) project, which developed a collaborative platform  where challenges can be initiated and evaluated; allowing participants to upload their code and have it evaluated against a range of metrics. We’d run an example challenge focused on the comparison of atmospheric correction processors for ocean colour data that, once setup, could easily be rerun.

I’ve already realised that there too many interesting parallel sessions here, as I missed the ocean colour presentations which I’ve heard were great. The good news for me is that these sessions were recorded. So if you haven’t be able to make to Prague in person, or like me you are here but haven’t seen everything you wanted there are going to be selection of sessions to view on ESA’s site, for example, you can see the opening session here.

Not only do events like this gives you to a fantastic chance learn about what’s happening across the EO community, but they also give you the opportunity to catch up with old friends. I am looking forward to the rest of the week!