Algae Starting To Bloom

Algal Blooms in Lake Erie, around Monroe, acquired by Sentinel-2 on 3rd August 2017. Data Courtesy of ESA/Copernicus.

Algae have been making the headlines in the last few weeks, which is definitely a rarely used phrase!

Firstly, the Lake Erie freshwater algal bloom has begun in the western end of the lake near Toledo. This is something that is becoming an almost annual event and last year it interrupted the water supply for a few days for around 400,000 residents in the local area.

An algae bloom refers to a high concentration of micro algae, known as phytoplankton, in a body of water. Blooms can grow quickly in nutrient rich waters and potentially have toxic effects. Although a lot of algae is harmless, the toxic varieties can cause rashes, nausea or skin irritation if you were to swim in it, it can also contaminate drinking water and can enter the food chain through shellfish as they filter large quantities of water.

Lake Erie is fourth largest of the great lakes on the US/Canadian border by surface area, measuring around 25,700 square km, although it’s also the shallowest and at 484 cubic km has the smallest water volume. Due to its southern position it is the warmest of the great lakes, something which may be factor in creation of nutrient rich waters. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration produce both an annual forecast and a twice weekly Harmful Algal Bloom Bulletin during the bloom season which lasts until late September. The forecast reflects the expected biomass of the bloom, but not its toxicity, and this year’s forecast was 7.5 on a scale to 10, the largest recent blooms in 2011 and 2015 both hit the top of the scale. Interestingly, this year NOAA will start incorporating Sentinel-3 data into the programme.

Western end of Lake Erie acquired by Sentinel-2 on 3rd August 2017. Data

Despite the phytoplankton within algae blooms being only 1,000th of a millimetre in size, the large numbers enable them to be seen from space. The image to the left is a Sentinel-2 image, acquired on the 3rd August, of the western side of the lake where you can see the green swirls of the algal bloom, although there are also interesting aircraft contrails visible in the image. The image at the start of the top of the blog is zoomed in to the city of Monroe and the Detroit River flow into the lake and the algal bloom is more prominent.

Landsat 8 acquired this image of the northwest coast of Norway on the 23rd July 2017,. Image courtesy of NASA/NASA Earth Observatory.

It’s not just Lake Erie where algal blooms have been spotted recently:

  • The Chautauqua Lake and Findley Lake, which are both just south of Lake Erie, have reported algal blooms this month.
  • NASA’s Landsat 8 satellite captured the image on the right, a bloom off the northwest coast of Norway on the 23rd July. It is noted that blooms at this latitude are in part due to the sunlight of long summer days.
  • The MODIS instrument onboard NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired the stunning image below of the Caspian Sea on the 3rd August.

Image of the Caspian Sea, acquired on 3rd August 2017, by MODIS on NASA’s Aqua satellite. Image Courtesy of NASA/NASA Earth Observatory.

Finally as reported by the BBC, an article in Nature this week proposes that it was a takeover by ocean algae 650 million years ago which essentially kick started life on Earth as we know it.

So remember, they may be small, but algae can pack a punch!

Landsat Turns 45!

False colour image of Dallas, Texas. The first fully operational Landsat image taken on July 25, 1972, Image courtesy: NASA’s Earth Observatory

Landsat has celebrated forty-five years of Earth observation this week. The first Landsat mission was Earth Resources Technology Satellite 1 (ERTS-1), which was launched into a sun-synchronous near polar orbit on the 23 July 1972. It wasn’t renamed Landsat-1 until 1975. It had an anticipated life of 1 year and carried two instruments: the Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) and the Return-Beam Vidicon (RBV).

The Landsat missions have data continuity at their heart, which has given a forty-five year archive of Earth observation imagery. However, as technological capabilities have developed the instruments on consecutive missions have improved. To demonstrate and celebrate this, NASA has produced a great video showing the changing coastal wetlands in Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana, through the eyes of the different Landsat missions.

In total there have been eight further Landsat missions, but Landsat 6 failed to reach its designated orbit and never collected any data. The missions have been:

  • Landsat 1 launched on 23 July 1972.
  • Landsat 2 launched on 22 January 1975.
  • Landsat 3 was launched on 5 March 1978.
  • Landsat 4 launched on 16 July 1982.
  • Landsat 5 launched on 1 March 1984.
  • Landsat 7 launched on 15 April 1999, and is still active.
  • Landsat 8 launched on 11 February 2013, and is still active.

Landsat 9 is planned to be launched at the end 2020 and Landsat 10 is already being discussed.

Some of the key successes of the Landsat mission include:

  • Over 7 million scenes of the Earth’s surface.
  • Over 22 million scenes had been downloaded through the USGS-EROS website since 2008, when the data was made free-to-access, with the rate continuing to increase (Campbell 2015).
  • Economic value of just one year of Landsat data far exceeds the multi-year total cost of building, launching, and managing Landsat satellites and sensors.
  • Landsat 5 officially set a new Guinness World Records title for the ‘Longest-operating Earth observation satellite’ with its 28 years and 10 months of operation when it was decommissioned in December 2012.
  • ESA provides Landsat data downlinked via their own data receiving stations; the ESA dataset includes data collected over the open ocean, whereas USGS does not, and the data is processed using ESA’s own processor.

The journey hasn’t always been smooth. Although established by NASA, Landsat was transferred to the private sector under the management of NOAA in the early 1980’s, before returning to US Government control in 1992. There have also been technical issues, the failure of Landsat 6 described above; and Landsat 7 suffering a Scan Line Corrector failure on the 31st May 2003 which means that instead of mapping in straight lines, a zigzag ground track is followed. This causes parts of the edge of the image not to be mapped, giving a black stripe effect within these images; although the centre of the images is unaffected the data overall can still be used.

Landsat was certainly a game changer in the remote sensing and Earth observation industries, both in terms of the data continuity approach and the decision to make the data free to access. It has provided an unrivalled archive of the changing planet which has been invaluable to scientists, researchers, book-writers and businesses like Pixalytics.

We salute Landsat and wish it many more years!

If no-one is there when an iceberg is born, does anyone see it?

Larsen C ice Shelf including A68 iceberg. Image acquired by MODIS Aqua satellite on 12th July 2017. Image courtesy of NASA.

The titular paraphrasing of the famous falling tree in the forest riddle was well and truly answered this week, and shows just how far satellite remote sensing has come in recent years.

Last week sometime between Monday 10th July and Wednesday 12th July 2017, a huge iceberg was created by splitting off the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica. It is one of the biggest icebergs every recorded according to scientists from Project MIDAS, a UK-based Antarctic research project, who estimate its area of be 5,800 sq km and to have a weight of more a trillion tonnes. It has reduced the Larsen C ice Shelf by more than twelve percent.

The iceberg has been named A68, which is a pretty boring name for such a huge iceberg. However, icebergs are named by the US National Ice Centre and the letter comes from where the iceberg was originally sited – in this case the A represents area zero degrees to ninety degrees west covering the Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas. The number is simply the order that they are discovered, which I assume means there have been 67 previous icebergs!

After satisfying my curiosity on the iceberg names, the other element that caught our interest was the host of Earth observation satellites that captured images of either the creation, or the newly birthed, iceberg. The ones we’ve spotted so far, although there may be others, are:

  • ESA’s Sentinel-1 has been monitoring the area for the last year as an iceberg splitting from Larsen C was expected. Sentinel-1’s SAR imagery has been crucial to this monitoring as the winter clouds and polar darkness would have made optical imagery difficult to regularly collect.
  • Whilst Sentinel-1 was monitoring the area, it was actually NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Aqua satellite which confirmed the ‘birth’ on the 12th July with a false colour image at 1 km spatial resolution using band 31 which measures infrared signals. This image is at the top of the blog and the dark blue shows where the surface is warmest and lighter blue indicates a cooler surface. The new iceberg can be seen in the centre of the image.
  • Longwave infrared imagery was also captured by the NOAA/NASA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite on July 13th.
  • Similarly, NASA also reported that Landsat 8 captured a false-colour image from its Thermal Infrared Sensor on the 12th July showing the relative warmth or coolness of the Larsen C ice shelf – with the area around the new iceberg being the warmest giving an indication of the energy involved in its creation.
  • Finally, Sentinel-3A has also got in on the thermal infrared measurement using the bands of its Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR).
  • ESA’s Cryosat has been used to calculate the size of iceberg by using its Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) which measured height of the iceberg out of the water. Using this data, it has been estimated that the iceberg contains around 1.155 cubic km of ice.
  • The only optical imagery we’ve seen so far is from the DEMIOS1 satellite which is owned by Deimos Imaging, an UrtheCast company. This is from the 14th July and revealed that the giant iceberg was already breaking up into smaller pieces.

It’s clear this is a huge iceberg, so huge in fact that most news agencies don’t think that readers can comprehend its vastness, and to help they give a comparison. Some of the ones I came across to explain its vastness were:

  • Size of the US State of Delaware
  • Twice the size of Luxembourg
  • Four times the size of greater London
  • Quarter of the size of Wales – UK people will know that Wales is almost an unofficial unit of size measurement in this country!
  • Has the volume of Lake Michigan
  • Has the twice the volume of Lake Erie
  • Has the volume of the 463 million Olympic-sized swimming pools; and
  • My favourite compares its size to the A68 road in the UK, which runs from Darlington to Edinburgh.

This event shows how satellites are monitoring the planet, and the different ways we can see the world changing.

Blue Holes from Space

Andros Island in The Bahamas. Acquired by Landsat 8 in February 2017. Data courtesy of NASA.

Blue holes are deep marine caverns or sinkholes which are open at the surface, and they get their name from their apparent blue colour of their surface due to the scattering of the light within water. The often contain both seawater and freshwater, and in their depths the water is very clear which makes them very popular with divers.

The term ‘blue hole’ first appeared on sea charts from the Bahamas in 1843, although the concept of submarine caves had been described a century earlier (from Schwabe and Carew, 2006). There are a number of well-known blue holes in Belize, Egypt and Malta amongst others. The Dragon Hole in the South China Sea is believed to be the deepest blue hole with a depth of 300 metres.

The Andros Island in The Bahamas has the highest concentration of blue holes in the world, and last week we watched a television programme called River Monsters featuring this area. The presenter, Jeremy Wade, was investigating the mythical Lusca, a Caribbean sea creature which reportedly attacks swimmers and divers pulling them down to their lairs deep within of the blue holes. Jeremy fished and dived some blue holes, and spoke to people who had seen the creature. By the end he believed the myth of the Lusca was mostly likely based on a giant octopus. Whilst this was interesting, by the end of the programme we were far more interested in whether you could see blue holes from space.

The image at the top is Andros Island. Although, technically it’s an archipelago, it is considered as a single island. It’s the largest island of The Bahamas and at 2,300 square miles is the fifth largest in the Caribbean. There are a number of well known blue holes in Andros, both inland and off the coast, such as:

Blues in the Blue Hole National Park on the Andros Island in The Bahamas. Acquired by Landsat 8 in February 2017. Data courtesy of NASA.

  • Blue Holes National Park covers over 33,000 acres and includes a variety of blue holes, freshwater reservoirs and forests within its boundaries. The image to the right covers an area of the national park. In the centre, just above the green water there are five black circles  – despite the colour, these are blue holes.
  • Uncle Charlie’s Blue Hole, also called Little Frenchman Blue Hole, is just off Queen’s Highway in Nicholls Town and has a maximum depth of 127 metres.
  • Atlantis Blue Hole has a maximum depth of about 85 metres.
  • Stargate Blue Hole his blue hole is located about 500 miles inland from the east coast of South Andros on the west side of The Bluff village.
  • Guardian Blue Hole is in the ocean and is believed to have the second deepest cave in The Bahamas, with a maximum explored depth of 133 metres.

Blue hole in the south of Andros Island in The Bahamas. Acquired by Landsat 8 in February 2017. Data courtesy of NASA.

The image to the right is from the south of the island. Just off the centre, you can see a blue hole surrounded by forests and vegetation.

So we can confirm that the amazing natural features called blue holes can be seen from space, even if they don’t always appear blue!

Great Barrier Reef Coral Bleaching

Great Barrier Reef off the east coast of Australia where currents swirl in the water around corals. Image acquired by Landsat-8 on 23 August 2013. Image Courtesy of USGS/ESA.

Coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in Australia was worse than expected last year, and a further decline is expected in 2017 according to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. In a document issued this week they noted that, along with reefs across the world, the Great Barrier Reef has had widespread coral decline and habitat loss over the last two years.

We’ve written about coral bleaching before, as it’s a real barometer of climate change. To put the importance of the Great Barrier Reef into context:

  • It’s 2300 km long and covers an area of around 70 million football pitches;
  • Consists of 3000 coral reefs, which are made up from 650 different types of hard and soft coral; and
  • Is home to over 1500 types of fish and more than 100 varieties of sharks and rays.

Coral bleaching occurs when water stress causes coral to expel the photosynthetic algae, which give coral their colours, exposing the skeleton and turning them white. The stress is mostly due to higher seawater temperatures; although cold water stresses, run-off, pollution and high solar irradiance can also cause bleaching. Whilst bleaching does not kill coral immediately, it does put them at a greater risk of mortality from storms, poor water quality, disease and the crown-of-thorns starfish.

Last year the Great Barrier Reef suffered its worst bleaching on record, aerial and in-water surveys identified that 29% of shallow water coral reefs died in 2016; up from the original estimation of 22%. The most severe mortality was in an area to the north of Port Douglas where 70% of the shallow water corals died. This is hugely sad news to Sam and I, as we explored this area of the Great Barrier Reef ourselves about fifteen years ago.

Whilst hugely concerning, there is also a little hope! There was a strong recovery of coral in the south of the Great Barrier Reef, as bleaching and other impacts were less.

Images from the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite captured on 8 June 2016 and 23 February 2017 show coral turning bright white for Adelaide Reef, Central Great Barrier Reef. Data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA, and contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016–17), processed by J. Hedley; conceptual model by C. Roelfsema

The coral bleaching event this year has also been captured by Sentinel-2. Scientists from ESA’s Sen2Coral project have used change detection techniques to determine bleaching. Images between January and April showed areas of coral turning bright white and then darkening, although it was unclear whether the darkening was due to coral recovery or dead coral being overgrown with algae. In-water surveys were undertaken, which confirmed the majority of the darkened areas were algal overgrowth.

This work has proved that coral bleaching can be seen from space, although it needs to be supported by in-situ work. ESA intends to develop a coral reef tool, which will be part of the open-source Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) toolkit. This will enable anyone to monitor the health of coral reefs worldwide and hopefully, help protect these natural wonders.

China’s Geo-Information Survey

Yuqiao Reservoir, east of Beijing, China from Landsat 8 acquired March 2017. Data courtesy of NASA/USGS,.

The first national geo-information study of China was released last week at a State Council Information Office press briefing.

The study, also referred to as the national census of geographic conditions, was originally announced in March 2013. Over the last three years 50,000 professionals have been involved in collecting a variety of data about China and it’s reported that they have achieved a 92% coverage of the country, generating around 770 terabytes of data in the process.

Data has been collected on natural resources, such as land features, vegetation, water and deserts; together with urban resources such as transport infrastructure, towns and neighbourhoods. This information was gathered, and verified, through remote sensing satellites, drones, aerial photography, 3D laser scanning and in-situ data. It’s reported that the accuracy is 99.7% with a 1 m resolution.

China is one of the largest countries in the world by land mass, at approximately 9.6 m square kilometres. Therefore, simply completing such a study with the accuracy and resolution reported is highly impressive.

It may take years to fully appreciate the variety, size and usefulness of this new dataset. However, a number of interesting high level statistics have already been released by the Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources including:

  • 23.2% of China’s land is above 3,500 m altitude, and 43.4% is below 1,000 m altitude.
  • 7.57 million sq km of the country has vegetation cover, with 21.1% being cultivated lands and the remainder grasslands and forests.
  • 1.3 million sq km of land is desert and bare lands, whilst rivers cover 6.55 million sq km.
  • 153,000 sq km of land has buildings on it.
  • 116,500 sq km of railway track and there is 2 million sq km of roads.

According to Kurex Mexsut, deputy head of the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation, the Chinese Government will be looking to establish a data sharing mechanism and information services platform for this dataset, together with a variety of data products. It is hoped that public departments and companies will be able to use this to help improve the delivery of public services.

Although not from the survey, the image at the top is of the Yuqiao Reservoir, situated just to the east of Beijing. It has a surface area of 119 sq km, with an average depth of 14 metres.

Not only is this a comprehensive geo-information dataset for a single country, but there is also huge potential for further information to be derived from this dataset. We’ll be watching with interest to see how the data is used and the impact it has.

Supporting Chimpanzee Conservation from Space

Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Acquired by Sentinel-2 in December 2016. Image courtesy of ESA.

Being able to visualise the changing face of the planet over time is one of the greatest strengths of satellite remote sensing. Our previous blog showed how Dubai’s coastline has evolved over a decade, and last week NASA described interesting work they’re doing on monitoring habitat loss for chimpanzees in conjunction with the Jane Goodall Institute.

Jane Goodall has spent over fifty years working to protect and conserve chimpanzees from the Gombe National Park in Tanzania, and formed the Jane Goodall Institute in 1977. The Institute works with local communities to provide sustainable conservation programmes.

A hundred years ago more than one million chimpanzees lived in Africa, today the World Wildlife Fund estimate the population may only be around 150,000 to 250,000. The decline is stark. For example, the Ivory Coast populations have declined by 90% within the last twenty years.

One of the key factors contributing to this decline is habitat loss, mostly through deforestation; although other factors such as hunting, disease and illegal capture also contributed.

Forests cover around 31% of the planet, and deforestation occurs when trees are removed and the land has another use instead of being a forest. In chimpanzee habitats, the deforestation is mostly due to logging, mining and drilling for oil. This change in land use can be monitored from space using remote sensing. Satellites produce regular images which can be used to monitor changes in the natural environment, in turn giving valuable information to conservation charities and other organisations.

In 2000 Lilian Pintea, from the Jane Goodall Institute, was shown Landsat images comparing the area around the Gombe National Park in 1972 and 1999. The latter image showed huge deforestation outside the park’s boundary. The Institute have continued to use Landsat imagery to monitor what is happening around the National Park. In 2009 they began a citizen science project with local communities giving them smartphones to report their observations. Combining these with ongoing satellite data from NASA has helped develop and implement local plans for land use and protection of the forests. Further visualisation of this work can be found here. The image at the top was acquired Sentinel-2 in December 2016 and shows the Gombe National Park, although it is under a little haze.

The satellite data supplied by NASA comes from the Landsat missions, which currently have an archive of almost forty-five years of satellite data, which is freely available to anyone. We also used Landsat for data in our Dubai animation last week. Landsat captures optical data, which means it operates in a similar manner to the human eye – although the instruments also have infrared capabilities. However, one drawback of optical instruments is that they cannot see through clouds. Therefore, whilst Landsat is great for monitoring land use when there are clear skies, it can be combined with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), from the microwave spectrum, as it can see through both clouds and smoke. This combination enables land use and land change to monitored anywhere in the world. Using the freely available Landsat and Sentinel-1 SAR data you could monitor what is happening to the forests in your neighbourhoods.

Satellite data is powerful tool for monitoring changes in the environment, and with the archive of data available offers a unique opportunity to see what has happened over the last four decades.

Islands of Sand

Animation showing the creation of islands in Dubai between 2001 & 2009 using Landsat images. Data courtesy of NASA.

This week we’re focusing on the development of Dubai’s land-coast interface between July 2001 and October 2009, looking specifically at the creation of the Palm islands and the World Archipelago. Dubai is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates, home to 2.7 million people as of January 2017. In a place where Dubai police vehicles include a Lamborghini and a Ferrari, and where it’s possible to buy gold bars from vending machines perhaps it’s not surprising to see the creation of extravagant islands.

Palm Islands & The World Archipelago

In the animation at the top of the blog, the development of the Palm Islands and The World Archipelago are clearly visible. The first island created was Palm Jumeirah, the smallest of the three planned palm islands, and can be seen just off centre on the animation. It consists of a tree trunk, a crown with seventeen fronds and a surrounding crescent, and is approximately 25 square kilometres in size. Construction began in 2001 and was completed in 2006. The workers used GPS signals to determine the correct place to deposit sand to create the palm effect.

Built in tandem were the Palm Jebel Ali and The World Archipelago. Construction began in 2002 and was expected to be completed in 2015, however work stopped in 2008 due to the financial crisis. Work has remained suspended on Palm Jebel Ali, but development on the World may be about to start. The World has three hundred islands reclaimed from the sea, but most of them are bare sand. In the last twelve months there have been rumours that ‘The Heart of Europe’ project and floating seahorses around St Petersburg island could be developed in the near future.

It is also possible to see the preliminary creation of Palm Deira at the top of the animation. 300 million cubic metres of sand were used to form the initial reclamation. However, between 2009 and 2016 there has been no further development.

Images of Dubai in 2001, left, and 2009 taken by Landsat 7. Data courtesy of NASA.

It is also worth noting the significant urban sprawl between the first and last images. Dubai’s population increased by 95%, from 910,336 to 1,770,978, during the period we’re looking at and whilst the growth of Dubai is obvious, it is particularly visible southeast of the Palm Jumeirah development.

Creating the Time Series Animation

The animation was created using the first (blue) visible band of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument. In May 2003, the scan line corrector – used to compensate for forward motion of the spacecraft, ensuring scan lines are parallel – failed. Consequently, the instrument images in a zigzag fashion; some data is captured twice, whilst some is not captured at all. As a result, 22 % of data in Landsat 7 images post May 2003 are missing. To compensate for this we’ve used a Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) tool to fill “no data” regions by interpolating from nearby valid pixels. The results, whilst not perfect, are nearly indistinguishable at this resolution.

Impacts of the Islands

The development of these islands has not been without its criticism as it has impacted the local ecology. The dredging of sand has increased the turbidity of the seawater, with sediment transport evident in the animation, which has damaged coral reefs. In addition, water around parts of the islands can remain almost stationary for weeks, increasing the risk of algal blooms. Whilst fish have returned to these waters, they are not the same species as were there before.

Viewed from space, both the speed and scale of the development is mesmerising. It is no surprise that tourism is a vitally important part of the local economy, attracting more than 13 million visitors in 2014. With the limitations of available land in Dubai, developments are sure to start again.

 

Blog produced by Tom Jones on work placement with Pixalytics Ltd.

Have you read the top Pixalytics blogs of 2016?

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

As this is the final blog of the year we’d like to take a look back over the past fifty-two weeks and see which blog’s captured people’s attention, and conversely which did not!

It turns out that seven of the ten most widely viewed blogs of the last year weren’t even written in 2016. Four were written in 2015, and three were written in 2014! The other obvious trend is the interest in the number of satellites in space, which can be seen by the titles of six of the ten most widely read blogs:

We’ve also found these blogs quoted by a variety of other web pages, and the occasional report. It’s always interesting to see where we’re quoted!

The other most read blogs of the year were:

Whilst only three of 2016’s blogs made our top ten, this is partly understandable as they have less time to attract the interest of readers and Google. However, looking at most read blogs of 2016 shows an interest in the growth of the Earth Observation market, Brexit, different types of data and Playboy!

We’ve now completed three years of weekly blogs, and the views on our website have grown steadily. This year has seen a significant increase in viewed pages, which is something we’re delighted to see.

We like our blog to be of interest to our colleagues in remote sensing and Earth observation, although we also touch on issues of interest to the wide space, and small business, communities.

At Pixalytics we believe strongly in education and training in both science and remote sensing, together with supporting early career scientists. As such we have a number of students and scientists working with us during the year, and we always like them to write a blog. Something they’re not always keen on at the start! This year we’ve had pieces on:

Writing a blog each week can be hard work, as Wednesday mornings always seem to come around very quickly. However, we think this work adds value to our business and makes a small contribution to explaining the industry in which we work.

Thanks for reading this year, and we hope we can catch your interest again next year.

We’d like to wish everyone a Happy New Year, and a very successful 2017!

Gathering of the UK Remote Sensing Clans

RSPSOC

The Remote Sensing & Photogrammetry Society (RSPSoc) 2016 Annual Conference is taking place this week, hosted by the University of Nottingham and the British Geological Society. Two Pixalytics staff, Dr Sam Lavender and Dr Louisa Reynolds, left Plymouth on a cold wet day on Monday, and arrived in the Nottinghamshire sunshine as befits RSPSoc week. The conference runs for three days and gives an opportunity to hear about new developments and research within remote sensing. Both Sam and Louisa are giving presentations this year.

Tuesday morning began with the opening keynote presentation given by Stephen Coulson of the European Space Agency (ESA), which discussed their comprehensive programme including the Copernicus and Earth Explorer missions. The Copernicus missions are generating ten times more data than similar previous missions, which presents logistical, processing and storage challenges for users. The future vision is to bring the user to the data, rather than the other way around. However, the benefits of cloud computing are still to be fully understood and ESA are interested in hearing about applications that couldn’t be produced with the IT technology we had 5 years ago.

After coffee Sam chaired the commercial session titled ‘The challenges (and rewards) of converting scientific research into commercial products.’ It started with three short viewpoint presentations from Jonathan Shears (Telespazio VEGA UK), Dr Sarah Johnson (University of Leicester) and Mark Jarman (Satellite Applications Catapult), and then moved into an interactive debate. It was great to see good attendance and a lively discussion ensued. Sam is planning to produce a white paper, with colleagues, based on the session. Some of the key points included:

  • Informative websites so people know what you do
  • Working with enthusiastic individuals as they will make sure something happens, and
  • To have a strong commercial business case alongside technical feasibility.
Dr Louisa Reynolds, Pixalytics Ltd, giving a presentation at RSPSoc 2016

Dr Louisa Reynolds, Pixalytics Ltd, giving a presentation at RSPSoc 2016

Louisa presented on Tuesday afternoon within the Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction session. Her presentation was ‘A semi-automated flood mapping procedure using statistical SAR backscatter analysis’ which summarised the work Pixalytics has been doing over the last year on flood mapping which was funded by the Space for Smarter Government Programme (SSGP). Louisa was the third presenter who showed Sentinel-1 flood maps of York, and so it was a popular topic!

Alongside Louisa’s presentation, there have some fascinating other talks on topics as varied as:

  • Detecting and monitoring artisanal oil refining in the Niger Delta
  • Night time lidar reading of long-eroded gravestones
  • Photogrammatic maps of ancient water management features in Al-Jufra, Libya.
  • Seismic risk in Crete; and
  • Activities of Map Action

Although for Louisa her favourite part so far was watching a video of the launch of Sentinel 1A, through the Soyuz VS07 rocket’s discarding and deployment stages, simultaneously filmed from the craft and from the ground.

Just so you don’t think the whole event is about remote sensing, the conference also has a thriving social scene. On Monday there was a tour of The City Ground, legendary home of Nottingham Forest, by John McGovern who captained Forest to successive European Cup’s in 1979 and 1980. It was a great event and it was fascinating to hear about the irascible leadership style of Brian Clough. Tuesday’s event was a tour round the spooky Galleries of Justice Museum.

The society’s Annual General Meeting takes place on Wednesday morning; Sam’s presentation, ‘Monitoring Land Cover Dynamics: Bringing together Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 data’, is in the Land Use/Land Cover Mapping session which follows.

The start of RSPSoc has been great as usual, offering chances to catch up with old remote sensing friends and meet some new ones. We are looking forward to rest of the conference and 2017!