Brexit: Science & Space

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Brexit currently dominates UK politics. Whilst it’s clear the UK is leaving the European Union (EU) in March 2019, the practical impact, and consequences, are still a confused fog hanging over everything. The UK Government Department for Exiting the European Union has been issuing position papers to set out how it sees the UK’s future arrangements with the EU.

Last week, the ‘Collaboration in science and innovation: a future partnership paper’ was issued. Given our company’s focus we were eager to see what was planned. Unfortunately, like a lot of the UK Government pronouncements on Brexit, it is high on rhetoric, but low on any helpful, or new, information or clarity.

It begins with a positive, but perhaps rather obvious, statement, stating that one of the UK’s core objectives is to ‘seek agreement to continue to collaborate with European partners on major science, research and technology initiatives.’

Future Partnership with EU Principles
Key aspects of the UK’s ambition for the future partnership include:

  • Science & Innovation collaboration is not only maintained, but strengthened.
  • With its strong research community, the UK wants an ambitious agreement for continued research co-operation.
  • Government wants the UK to be a hub for international talent in research, and to welcome the brightest and best people from around the world.

The principles are followed by four particular areas the UK wants to discuss with the EU. Interestingly, it specifically outlines how non-EU countries currently participate in each of these areas, which are Research & Innovation Framework Programmes, Space Programmes, Nuclear R&D and Defence R&D.

Research & Innovation Framework Programmes
Horizon 2020 is highlighted as the UK ranks top across the EU in terms of contracts and participants in it. The Government confirms its commitment to underwriting any projects submitted whilst the UK is still an EU member.

Support for this programme is good, however with an end date of 2020 it is going to be equally important to be a strong partner of whatever research funding programme that is going to follow.

Space Programmes
As we have described before the European Space Agency is not an EU institution, and so is not impacted by Brexit – a fact reinforced by the paper. Three key EU, rather than ESA, led space programmes are highlighted:

  • Galileo Navigation and Positioning System – Issues here surround both the use of the system and its ongoing development. UK firms have been key suppliers for this work including Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), Qinetiq, CGI, Airbus and Scisys.
  • Copernicus – The Copernicus Earth Observation data is freely available to anyone in the world. The key element here is about being at the table to influence the direction. Although, the paper does refer to existing precedents for third party participation.
  • Space Surveillance and Tracking – this is a new programme.

The paper states that given the unique nature of space programmes, the ‘EU and UK should discuss all options for future cooperation including new arrangements.’

What Is Not Said
There are a lot of positive and welcome words here, but also a huge amount unsaid, for example:

  • Interconnectivity: Science and innovation happens when researchers work together, so the UK’s approach to the movement of people is fundamental. Will the brightest and best be allowed to come and work here, and will they want to?
  • Education: Education is fundamental to this area, yet it does not merit a single mention in the paper. New researchers and early career scientists benefit hugely from programmes such as Erasmus, will our involvement in these continue?
  • Financial Contribution: How much is the UK willing to pay to be part of science and innovation programmes? The paper notes any financial contribution will have to be weighed against other spending priorities. Not exactly hugely encouraging.
  • Contractual Issues: Part of the issue with Galileo is that the contracts specifically exclude non-EU countries from involvement.. Whilst, it is possible to see that the UK could negotiate use of Galileo, continued involvement as a supplier may be more difficult.

Conclusion
The UK wants dialogue with the EU on far-reaching science and innovation agreement. This ambition is to be applauded, but we are a very long way away from that point. We hope both parties are able to work together to get there.

Algae Starting To Bloom

Algal Blooms in Lake Erie, around Monroe, acquired by Sentinel-2 on 3rd August 2017. Data Courtesy of ESA/Copernicus.

Algae have been making the headlines in the last few weeks, which is definitely a rarely used phrase!

Firstly, the Lake Erie freshwater algal bloom has begun in the western end of the lake near Toledo. This is something that is becoming an almost annual event and last year it interrupted the water supply for a few days for around 400,000 residents in the local area.

An algae bloom refers to a high concentration of micro algae, known as phytoplankton, in a body of water. Blooms can grow quickly in nutrient rich waters and potentially have toxic effects. Although a lot of algae is harmless, the toxic varieties can cause rashes, nausea or skin irritation if you were to swim in it, it can also contaminate drinking water and can enter the food chain through shellfish as they filter large quantities of water.

Lake Erie is fourth largest of the great lakes on the US/Canadian border by surface area, measuring around 25,700 square km, although it’s also the shallowest and at 484 cubic km has the smallest water volume. Due to its southern position it is the warmest of the great lakes, something which may be factor in creation of nutrient rich waters. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration produce both an annual forecast and a twice weekly Harmful Algal Bloom Bulletin during the bloom season which lasts until late September. The forecast reflects the expected biomass of the bloom, but not its toxicity, and this year’s forecast was 7.5 on a scale to 10, the largest recent blooms in 2011 and 2015 both hit the top of the scale. Interestingly, this year NOAA will start incorporating Sentinel-3 data into the programme.

Western end of Lake Erie acquired by Sentinel-2 on 3rd August 2017. Data

Despite the phytoplankton within algae blooms being only 1,000th of a millimetre in size, the large numbers enable them to be seen from space. The image to the left is a Sentinel-2 image, acquired on the 3rd August, of the western side of the lake where you can see the green swirls of the algal bloom, although there are also interesting aircraft contrails visible in the image. The image at the start of the top of the blog is zoomed in to the city of Monroe and the Detroit River flow into the lake and the algal bloom is more prominent.

Landsat 8 acquired this image of the northwest coast of Norway on the 23rd July 2017,. Image courtesy of NASA/NASA Earth Observatory.

It’s not just Lake Erie where algal blooms have been spotted recently:

  • The Chautauqua Lake and Findley Lake, which are both just south of Lake Erie, have reported algal blooms this month.
  • NASA’s Landsat 8 satellite captured the image on the right, a bloom off the northwest coast of Norway on the 23rd July. It is noted that blooms at this latitude are in part due to the sunlight of long summer days.
  • The MODIS instrument onboard NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired the stunning image below of the Caspian Sea on the 3rd August.

Image of the Caspian Sea, acquired on 3rd August 2017, by MODIS on NASA’s Aqua satellite. Image Courtesy of NASA/NASA Earth Observatory.

Finally as reported by the BBC, an article in Nature this week proposes that it was a takeover by ocean algae 650 million years ago which essentially kick started life on Earth as we know it.

So remember, they may be small, but algae can pack a punch!

Supporting Soil Fertility From Space

Sentinel-2 pseudo-true colour composite from 2016 with a Kompsat-3 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product from 2015 inset. Sentinel data courtesy of ESA/Copernicus.

Last Tuesday I was at the academic launch event for the Tru-Nject project at Cranfield University. Despite the event’s title, it was in fact an end of project meeting. Pixalytics has been involved in the project since July 2015, when we agreed to source and process high resolution satellite Earth Observation (EO) imagery for them.

The Tru-Nject project is funded via Innovate UK. It’s official title is ‘Tru-Nject: Proximal soil sensing based variable rate application of subsurface fertiliser injection in vegetable/ combinable crops’. The focus is on modelling soil fertility within fields, to enable fertiliser to be applied in varying amounts using point-source injection technology which reduces the nitrogen loss to the atmosphere when compared with spreading fertiliser on the soil surface.

To do this the project created soil fertility maps from a combination of EO products, physical sampling and proximal soil sensing – where approximately 15 000 georeferenced hyperspectral spectra are collected using an instrument connected to a tractor. These fertility maps are then interpreted by an agronomist, who decides on the relative application of fertiliser.

Initial results have shown that applying increased fertiliser to areas of low fertility improves overall yield when compared to applying an equal amount of fertiliser everywhere, or applying more fertiliser to high yield areas.

Pixalytics involvement in the work focussed on acquiring and processing, historical, and new, sub 5 metre optical satellite imagery for two fields, near Hull and York. We have primarily acquired data from the Kompsat satellites operated by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), supplemented with WorldView data from DigitalGlobe. Once we’d acquired the imagery, we processed it to:

  • remove the effects of the atmosphere, termed atmospheric correction, and then
  • converted them to maps of vegetation greenness

The new imagery needed to coincide with a particular stage of crop growth, which meant the satellite data acquisition period was narrow. This led to a pleasant surprise for Dave George, Tru-Nject Project Manager, who said, “I never believed I’d get to tell a satellite what to do.’ To ensure that we collected data on specific days we did task the Kompsat satellites each year.

Whilst we were quite successful with the tasking the combination of this being the UK, and the fact that the fields were relatively small, meant that some of the images were partly affected by cloud. Where this occurred we gap-filled with Copernicus Sentinel-2 data, it has coarser spatial resolution (15m), but more regular acquisitions.

In addition, we also needed to undertake vicarious adjustment to ensure that we produced consistent products over time whilst the data came from different sensors with different specifications. As we cannot go to the satellite to measure its calibration, vicarious adjustment is a technique which uses ground measurements and algorithms to not only cross-calibrate the data, but also adjusts for errors in the atmospheric correction.

An example of the work is at the top, which shows a Sentinel-2 pseudo-true colour composite from 2016 with a Kompsat-3 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product from 2015 inset. The greener the NDVI product the more green the vegetation is, although the two datasets were collected in different years so the planting within the field varies.

We’ve really enjoyed working with Stockbridge Technology Centre Ltd (STC), Manterra Ltd, and Cranfield University, who were the partners in the project. Up until last week all the work was done via telephone and email, and so it was great to finally meet them in-person, hear about the successful project and discuss ideas for the future.

If no-one is there when an iceberg is born, does anyone see it?

Larsen C ice Shelf including A68 iceberg. Image acquired by MODIS Aqua satellite on 12th July 2017. Image courtesy of NASA.

The titular paraphrasing of the famous falling tree in the forest riddle was well and truly answered this week, and shows just how far satellite remote sensing has come in recent years.

Last week sometime between Monday 10th July and Wednesday 12th July 2017, a huge iceberg was created by splitting off the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica. It is one of the biggest icebergs every recorded according to scientists from Project MIDAS, a UK-based Antarctic research project, who estimate its area of be 5,800 sq km and to have a weight of more a trillion tonnes. It has reduced the Larsen C ice Shelf by more than twelve percent.

The iceberg has been named A68, which is a pretty boring name for such a huge iceberg. However, icebergs are named by the US National Ice Centre and the letter comes from where the iceberg was originally sited – in this case the A represents area zero degrees to ninety degrees west covering the Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas. The number is simply the order that they are discovered, which I assume means there have been 67 previous icebergs!

After satisfying my curiosity on the iceberg names, the other element that caught our interest was the host of Earth observation satellites that captured images of either the creation, or the newly birthed, iceberg. The ones we’ve spotted so far, although there may be others, are:

  • ESA’s Sentinel-1 has been monitoring the area for the last year as an iceberg splitting from Larsen C was expected. Sentinel-1’s SAR imagery has been crucial to this monitoring as the winter clouds and polar darkness would have made optical imagery difficult to regularly collect.
  • Whilst Sentinel-1 was monitoring the area, it was actually NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Aqua satellite which confirmed the ‘birth’ on the 12th July with a false colour image at 1 km spatial resolution using band 31 which measures infrared signals. This image is at the top of the blog and the dark blue shows where the surface is warmest and lighter blue indicates a cooler surface. The new iceberg can be seen in the centre of the image.
  • Longwave infrared imagery was also captured by the NOAA/NASA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite on July 13th.
  • Similarly, NASA also reported that Landsat 8 captured a false-colour image from its Thermal Infrared Sensor on the 12th July showing the relative warmth or coolness of the Larsen C ice shelf – with the area around the new iceberg being the warmest giving an indication of the energy involved in its creation.
  • Finally, Sentinel-3A has also got in on the thermal infrared measurement using the bands of its Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR).
  • ESA’s Cryosat has been used to calculate the size of iceberg by using its Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) which measured height of the iceberg out of the water. Using this data, it has been estimated that the iceberg contains around 1.155 cubic km of ice.
  • The only optical imagery we’ve seen so far is from the DEMIOS1 satellite which is owned by Deimos Imaging, an UrtheCast company. This is from the 14th July and revealed that the giant iceberg was already breaking up into smaller pieces.

It’s clear this is a huge iceberg, so huge in fact that most news agencies don’t think that readers can comprehend its vastness, and to help they give a comparison. Some of the ones I came across to explain its vastness were:

  • Size of the US State of Delaware
  • Twice the size of Luxembourg
  • Four times the size of greater London
  • Quarter of the size of Wales – UK people will know that Wales is almost an unofficial unit of size measurement in this country!
  • Has the volume of Lake Michigan
  • Has the twice the volume of Lake Erie
  • Has the volume of the 463 million Olympic-sized swimming pools; and
  • My favourite compares its size to the A68 road in the UK, which runs from Darlington to Edinburgh.

This event shows how satellites are monitoring the planet, and the different ways we can see the world changing.

Great Barrier Reef Coral Bleaching

Great Barrier Reef off the east coast of Australia where currents swirl in the water around corals. Image acquired by Landsat-8 on 23 August 2013. Image Courtesy of USGS/ESA.

Coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in Australia was worse than expected last year, and a further decline is expected in 2017 according to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. In a document issued this week they noted that, along with reefs across the world, the Great Barrier Reef has had widespread coral decline and habitat loss over the last two years.

We’ve written about coral bleaching before, as it’s a real barometer of climate change. To put the importance of the Great Barrier Reef into context:

  • It’s 2300 km long and covers an area of around 70 million football pitches;
  • Consists of 3000 coral reefs, which are made up from 650 different types of hard and soft coral; and
  • Is home to over 1500 types of fish and more than 100 varieties of sharks and rays.

Coral bleaching occurs when water stress causes coral to expel the photosynthetic algae, which give coral their colours, exposing the skeleton and turning them white. The stress is mostly due to higher seawater temperatures; although cold water stresses, run-off, pollution and high solar irradiance can also cause bleaching. Whilst bleaching does not kill coral immediately, it does put them at a greater risk of mortality from storms, poor water quality, disease and the crown-of-thorns starfish.

Last year the Great Barrier Reef suffered its worst bleaching on record, aerial and in-water surveys identified that 29% of shallow water coral reefs died in 2016; up from the original estimation of 22%. The most severe mortality was in an area to the north of Port Douglas where 70% of the shallow water corals died. This is hugely sad news to Sam and I, as we explored this area of the Great Barrier Reef ourselves about fifteen years ago.

Whilst hugely concerning, there is also a little hope! There was a strong recovery of coral in the south of the Great Barrier Reef, as bleaching and other impacts were less.

Images from the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite captured on 8 June 2016 and 23 February 2017 show coral turning bright white for Adelaide Reef, Central Great Barrier Reef. Data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA, and contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016–17), processed by J. Hedley; conceptual model by C. Roelfsema

The coral bleaching event this year has also been captured by Sentinel-2. Scientists from ESA’s Sen2Coral project have used change detection techniques to determine bleaching. Images between January and April showed areas of coral turning bright white and then darkening, although it was unclear whether the darkening was due to coral recovery or dead coral being overgrown with algae. In-water surveys were undertaken, which confirmed the majority of the darkened areas were algal overgrowth.

This work has proved that coral bleaching can be seen from space, although it needs to be supported by in-situ work. ESA intends to develop a coral reef tool, which will be part of the open-source Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) toolkit. This will enable anyone to monitor the health of coral reefs worldwide and hopefully, help protect these natural wonders.

Brexit Biting for UK Space Industry

Artist's rendition of a satellite - mechanik/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – mechanik/123RF Stock Photo

UK companies involved in European Commission space programmes face an uncertain future according to media reports over the last week. The Financial Times reported that the European Commission wanted two key clauses in the contracts for work on the next part of the €10 bn Galileo Satellite Navigation System. These would allow the Commission to:

  • Cancel the contracts, without penalty, of any supplier who is no longer based in an European Union (EU) member state; and then
  • Charge that supplier all costs associated with finding their replacements.

Clearly, this poses a huge risk to UK companies given the fact that the UK has indicated its intention to leave the EU in 2019 by triggering Article 50. We wrote about the potential impacts of Brexit last year, and whilst we did pick up concerns over Galileo we didn’t see this coming!

Should the UK Space Industry be concerned?
Yes!

Despite reports to the contrary, this does not mean we are leaving the European Space Agency (ESA). We are very much remaining part of ESA, something that was confirmed at the ministerial in December. This solely relates to programmes owned, and funded, by the European Union (EU). However, it is concerning for two key reasons:

  • Anyone who has tried to negotiate contract terms with large governmental organisations will be aware that it tends to be a binary take it or leave it scenario. Therefore, if these clauses are in the contract, then it is highly likely companies will have to sign up to them to get the work.
  • It may not just be Galileo, the Copernicus Programme could be next. Copernicus is also an EU programme, and therefore it has to be a possibility that they may apply the same clauses to future Copernicus tenders. Galileo isn’t something Pixalytics is involved with, but if this was extended to Copernicus we’d be potentially impacted and would need to make choices.

What Can UK Companies Do?
The options are limited:

  • Bid anyway! Accept the potential financial risk, or hope that it will get resolved within the various Brexit negotiations. Given the size of these contracts, it will be a brave CEO who goes down this route.
  • Not bidding for any Galileo contract is probably the financially prudent option, but equally it removes a significant revenue stream.
  • Move to another European Country. I think there will be a number of companies who will be looking at moving some, or all, of their operations to another EU member state.

Any Causes For Optimism?
Not really, but there are tiny strands of hope.

  • Security – A key issue with Galileo is security. Currently, all EU members have agreements on security and when the UK leaves the EU, it leaves that agreement. Of course, security is just one of hundreds of agreements the UK will be hoping to discuss with the EU through Brexit negations. If security agreements are reached with the UK, maybe the position will change.
  • UK Election – Whilst writing this blog, the UK Prime Minister has announced a General Election in June. Parliamentary changes may influence the type of Brexit we have, but again it is highly unlikely.

It was fairly obvious, despite the contrary political rhetoric, that Brexit would have huge consequences on the UK’s relationship with Europe.

The UK’s space industry looks as though it will be at the forefront of those consequences. Forget 2019, the bite of Brexit is being felt today!

Sentinel To Be Launched

Sentinel-2 Image of Plymouth from 2016. Data courtesy of Copernicus/ESA.

Sentinel-2B was launched at 01:49 GMT on the 7th March from Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana. It’s the second of a constellation of optical satellites which are part of the European Commission’s Copernicus Programme.

Its partner Sentinel-2A was launched on the 23rd June 2015, and has been providing some stunning imagery over the last eighteen months like the picture of Plymouth above. We’ve also used the data within our own work. Sentinel-2B carries an identical Multispectral Imager (MSI) instrument to its twin with 13 spectral bands:

  • 4 visible and near infrared spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 10 m
  • 6 short wave infrared spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 20 m
  • 3 atmospheric correction bands with a spatial resolution of 60 m

With a swath width of 290 km the constellation will acquire data in a band of latitude extending from 56° South around Isla Hornos, Cape Horn, South America to 83° North above Greenland, together with observations over specific calibration sites, such as Dome-C in Antarctica. Its focus will be on continental land surfaces, all European islands, islands bigger than 100 square kilometres, land locked seas and coastal waters.

The satellites will orbit 180 degrees apart at an altitude of 786 km, which means that together they will revisit the same point on Earth every five days at the equator, and it may be faster for parts of southern Europe. In comparison, Landsat takes sixteen days to revisit the same point.

With all Copernicus data being made freely available to anyone, the short revisit time offers opportunities small and micro Earth Observation businesses to establish monitoring products and services without the need for significant investment in satellite data paving the way for innovative new solutions to the way in which certain aspects of the environment are managed. Clearly, five day revisits are not ‘real-time’ and the spatial resolution of Sentinel data won’t be suitable for every problem.There is joint work between the US and Europe, to have complementarity with Landsat-8, which has thermal bands, and allows a further opportunity for cloud-free data acquisitions. Also, commercial operators provide higher spatial resolution data.

At Pixalytics we’re supporters of open source in both software and imagery. Our first point of call with any client is to ask whether the solution can be delivered through free to access imagery, as this can make a significant cost saving and allow large archives to be accessed. Of course, for a variety of reasons, it becomes necessary to purchase imagery to ensure the client gets the best solution for their needs. Of course, applications often include a combination of free to access and paid for data.

Next’s week launch offers new opportunities for downstream developers and we’ll be interested to see how we can exploit this new resource to develop our products and services.

Supporting Chimpanzee Conservation from Space

Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Acquired by Sentinel-2 in December 2016. Image courtesy of ESA.

Being able to visualise the changing face of the planet over time is one of the greatest strengths of satellite remote sensing. Our previous blog showed how Dubai’s coastline has evolved over a decade, and last week NASA described interesting work they’re doing on monitoring habitat loss for chimpanzees in conjunction with the Jane Goodall Institute.

Jane Goodall has spent over fifty years working to protect and conserve chimpanzees from the Gombe National Park in Tanzania, and formed the Jane Goodall Institute in 1977. The Institute works with local communities to provide sustainable conservation programmes.

A hundred years ago more than one million chimpanzees lived in Africa, today the World Wildlife Fund estimate the population may only be around 150,000 to 250,000. The decline is stark. For example, the Ivory Coast populations have declined by 90% within the last twenty years.

One of the key factors contributing to this decline is habitat loss, mostly through deforestation; although other factors such as hunting, disease and illegal capture also contributed.

Forests cover around 31% of the planet, and deforestation occurs when trees are removed and the land has another use instead of being a forest. In chimpanzee habitats, the deforestation is mostly due to logging, mining and drilling for oil. This change in land use can be monitored from space using remote sensing. Satellites produce regular images which can be used to monitor changes in the natural environment, in turn giving valuable information to conservation charities and other organisations.

In 2000 Lilian Pintea, from the Jane Goodall Institute, was shown Landsat images comparing the area around the Gombe National Park in 1972 and 1999. The latter image showed huge deforestation outside the park’s boundary. The Institute have continued to use Landsat imagery to monitor what is happening around the National Park. In 2009 they began a citizen science project with local communities giving them smartphones to report their observations. Combining these with ongoing satellite data from NASA has helped develop and implement local plans for land use and protection of the forests. Further visualisation of this work can be found here. The image at the top was acquired Sentinel-2 in December 2016 and shows the Gombe National Park, although it is under a little haze.

The satellite data supplied by NASA comes from the Landsat missions, which currently have an archive of almost forty-five years of satellite data, which is freely available to anyone. We also used Landsat for data in our Dubai animation last week. Landsat captures optical data, which means it operates in a similar manner to the human eye – although the instruments also have infrared capabilities. However, one drawback of optical instruments is that they cannot see through clouds. Therefore, whilst Landsat is great for monitoring land use when there are clear skies, it can be combined with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), from the microwave spectrum, as it can see through both clouds and smoke. This combination enables land use and land change to monitored anywhere in the world. Using the freely available Landsat and Sentinel-1 SAR data you could monitor what is happening to the forests in your neighbourhoods.

Satellite data is powerful tool for monitoring changes in the environment, and with the archive of data available offers a unique opportunity to see what has happened over the last four decades.

Earth Observation Looking Good in 2017!

Artist's rendition of a satellite - paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

Artist’s rendition of a satellite – paulfleet/123RF Stock Photo

2017 is looking like an exciting one for Earth Observation (EO), judging by the number of significant satellites planned for launch this year.

We thought it would be interesting to give an overview of some of the key EO launches we’ve got to look forward to in the next twelve months.

The European Space Agency (ESA) has planned launches of:

  • Sentinel-2B in March, Sentinel-5p in June and Sentinel-3B in August – all of which we discussed last week.
  • ADM-Aeolus satellite is intended to be launched by the end of the year carrying an Atmospheric Laser Doppler Instrument. This is essentially a lidar instrument which will provide global measurements of wind profiles from ground up to the stratosphere with 0.5 to 2 km vertical resolution.

From the US, both NASA and NOAA have important satellite launches:

  • NASA’s Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) Mission is planned for June, and will provide observations of Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere; exploring the boundary between Earth and space.
  • NASA’s ICESat-2 in November that will measure ice sheet elevation, ice sheet thickness changes and the Earth’s vegetation biomass.
  • In June NOAA will be launching the first of its Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) missions, a series of next-generation polar-orbiting weather observatories.
  • Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment – Follow-On (GRACE_FO) are a pair of twin satellites to extend measurements from the GRACE satellite, maintaining data continuity. These satellites use microwaves to measure the changes in the Earth’s gravity fields to help map changes in the oceans, ice sheets and land masses. It is planned for launch right at the end of 2017, and is a partnership between NASA and the German Research Centre for Geosciences.

Some of the other launches planned include:

  • Kanopus-V-IK is a small Russian remote sensing satellite with an infrared capability to be used for forest fire detection. It has a 5 m by 5 m spatial resolution over a 2000 km swath, and is planned to be launched next month.
  • Vegetation and Environment monitoring on a New MicroSatellite (VENµS), which is partnership between France and Israel has a planned launch of August. As its name suggests it will be monitoring ecosytems, global carbon cycles, land use and land change.
  • KhalifaSat is the third EO satellite of United Arab Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST). It is an optical satellite with a spatial resolution of 0.75 m for the visible and near infrared bands.

Finally, one of the most intriguing launches involves three satellites that form the next part of India’s CartoSat mission. These satellites will carry both high resolution multi- spectral imagers and a panchromatic camera, and the mission’s focus is cartography. It’s not these three satellites that make this launch intriguing, it is the one hundred other satellites that will accompany them!

The Indian Space Research Organisation’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C37, will aim to launch a record 103 satellites in one go. Given that the current record for satellites launched in one go is 37, and that over the last few years we’ve only had around two hundred and twenty satellites launched in an entire year; this will be a hugely significant achievement.

So there you go. Not a fully comprehensive list, as I know there will be others, but hopefully it gives you a flavour of what to expect.

It certainly shows that the EO is not slowing down, and the amount of data available is continuing to grow. This of course gives everyone working in the industry more challenges in terms of storage and processing power – but they are good problems to have. Exciting year ahead!

Will Earth Observation’s power base shift in 2017?

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972. Image Credit: NASA

Blue Marble image of the Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 on Dec. 7 1972.
Image Credit: NASA

We’re only a few days into 2017, but this year may see the start of a seismic shift in the Earth Observation (EO) power base.

We’ve previously described how the sustainable EO industry really began this week thirty nine years ago. On 6th January 1978 NASA deactivated Landsat-1; it had already launched Landsat-2, carrying the same sensors, three years earlier and with guaranteed data continuity our industry effectively began.

Since then the USA, though the data collected by NASA and NOAA satellites, has led the EO global community. This position was cemented in 2008 when it made all Landsat data held by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) freely available, via the internet, to anyone in the world. This gave scientists three decades worth of data to start investigating how the planet had changed, and companies sprang up offering services based entirely on Landsat data. This model of making data freely available has been so transformational, that the European Union decided to follow it with its Copernicus Programme.

Landsat-1 and 2 were followed by 4, 5, 7 & 8 – sadly Landsat 6 never made its orbit – and Landsat 9 is planned for launch in 2020. The USA’s role EO leadership has never been in question, until now.

US President-elect Donald Trump and his team have already made a number of statements indicating that they intended to cut back on NASA’s Earth Science activities. There are a variety of rumours suggesting reasons for this change of approach. However, irrespective of the reason, slashing the current $2 billion Earth Science budget will have huge consequences. Whilst all of this is just conjecture at the moment, the reality will be seen after 20th January.

Against this America backdrop sits the Copernicus Programme, with the European Space Agency due to launch another three satellites this year:

  • Sentinel 2B is planned for March. This is the second of the twin constellation optical satellites offering a spatial resolution of 10 m for the visible bands. The constellation will revisit the same spot over the equator every five days, with a shorter temporal resolution for higher latitudes.
  • June is the scheduled month for the launch of the Sentinel 5 Precursor EO satellite to measure air quality, ozone, pollution and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere. This will be used to reduce the data gaps between Envisat, which ended in 2012, and the launch of Sentinel-5.
  • Sentinel 3B is due to launched in the middle of the year, and like 2B is the second in a twin satellite constellation. This pair is mainly focussed on the oceans and measure sea surface topography, sea and land surface temperature, and ocean and land colour. It will provide global coverage every two days with Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) and the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI).

These launches will take give the Copernicus programme seven satellites collecting a wide variety of optical and radar data across the entire planet, which is then made freely available to anyone. It’s obvious to see what will fill any vacuum created by a reduction in Earth Science in the USA.

Depending on how much of the next US President’s rhetoric is turned into action, we may start to see the shift of the EO power base to Europe. Certainly going to be an interesting year ahead!